Tuesday, December 31, 2019

African American Women Under Slavery Essay - 2412 Words

African American Women Under Slavery This paper discusses the experiences of African American Women under slavery during the Slave Trade, their exploitation, the secrecy, the variety of tasks and positions of slave women, slave and ex-slave narratives, and significant contributions to history. Also, this paper presents the hardships African American women faced and the challenges they overcame to become equal with men in today’s society. Slavery was a destructive experience for African Americans especially women. Black women suffered doubly during the slave era. Slave Trade For most women who endured it, the experience of the Slave Trade was one of being outnumbered by men. Roughly one African woman was carried across the†¦show more content†¦Exploitation The slave owner’s exploitation of the black woman’s sexuality was one of the most significant factors differentiating the experience of slavery for males and females. The white man’s claim to the slave body, male as well as female, was inherent in the concept of the Slave Trade and was tangibly realized perhaps no where more than the auction block. Captive Africans were stripped of their clothing, oiled down, and poked and prodded by potential buyers. The erotic undertones of such scenes were particularly pronounced in the case of black women. Throughout the period of slavery in America, white society believed black women to be innately lustful beings. The perception of the African woman as hyper-sexual made her both the object of white man’s abhor rence and his fantasy. Within the bonds of slavery, masters often felt it was their right to engage in sexual activity with black women. Sometimes, female slaves made advances hoping that such relationships would increase the chances that they or their children would be liberated by the master. Most of the time, slave owners took slaves by force. For the most part, masters made young, single slaves the objects of their sexual pursuits. They did on occasion rape married women. The inability of the slave husband to protect his wife from such violation points to another fundamental aspect of the relationship between enslavedShow MoreRelatedVoices Of Freedom : Slavery s Impact On African American Literature1204 Words   |  5 PagesSlavery’s impact on African American Literature In the early to mid-nineteenth century, America found itself divided over the issue of slavery. The culture, traditions, and economy of southern states depended heavily on slave labor, while the northern states opposed the institution of slavery. Even though the slave trade was declared illegal in the early nineteenth century, slavery itself was not illegalized until more than a half century later. Abolitionists used powerful anti-slavery writings as aRead MoreA Brief Note On The Civil War And Its Impact On Women s Rights1461 Words   |  6 Pagesamendments that eliminated slavery, gave citizenship to everyone born in the United States, protected people’s rights to due process, required equal protection under the law, and guaranteed voting rights to all American men. However, African American men were still segregated in terms of housing, work, equal pay, and schooling. Despite this unfair treatment, African American men received better treatment compared to their female counterparts. After the Civil War, all American women did not have the sameRead MorePrimary Source Analysis : Virginian Luxuries1339 Words   |  6 Pages Relationships of power that featured in â€Å"Virginian Luxuries† (Document 1) include the relation between white power and African American slaves. On the left side of the portrait, their seems to be a white male kissing an enslave women, which is very ironic during this time period. On the left side of the portrait, it seems to be a white slave owner, whipping an African American slave. During this time, white people were not supposed to have any relationship with people of colored skin, but as historyRead MoreThe Life Of A Slave Girl By John S. Jacobs And A True Tale Of Slavery963 Words   |  4 PagesSlavery in the American South is a well-documented culture with a well-known theme of corruption; however, Harriett A. Jacobs provides new insight as to the feministic repression due to the happenings of slavery. In â€Å"Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl† by Harriett A. Jacobs and â€Å"A True Tale of Slavery† by John S. Jacobs, the corrupting power of slav ery is established as a central theme that accompanied the sexual exploitation of African American women. Both authors give individualized understandingsRead MoreThe Effects of Slavery on the African-American Family Structure1272 Words   |  5 PagesEffects of Slavery on the African American Family Structure Slavery had an immense impact on African American families, as the familial dynamic of the African American family was in many ways responsible for the stereotypes surrounding black families in the present moment. Not only were families the sole property of their slave owner, but there were laws restricting their rights and privileges. However, despite the fact that the African American slave family existed in a perpetually tumultuousRead MoreThe Impact Of The Westward Expansion On Women And African Americans991 Words   |  4 Pages The Impact of the Westward Expansion on Women and African Americans The Westward Expansion started prior to The Revolutionary War, settlers were migrating westward to what states are now modern day Kentucky and Tennessee in hopes for a fruitful life and larger job opportunity. This Westward Expansion was aided through the Louisiana purchase in 1803, in which the United States purchased territory from France, resulting in doubling in size of the country. This Louisiana purchase was stretchedRead MoreThe Path to Aboliton 1312 Words   |  5 Pagespolitical minds of Americans striving to influence the participation of the abolition movement. One of the many strategies used by American abolitionists was the use of slave narratives. This moral persuasion was a very useful tactic. The creation of these narratives helped white northerners identify with the mindset of an African American slave in the south. The narratives illustrated the experiences slaves overcame to find freedom. Another major strategy that was useful to the slavery movement was theRe ad MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Aint I A Woman 1079 Words   |  5 Pageslives of Black women in America from Slavery to the present and their relation to feminism. Hooks felt that there was an absence of books about the African American woman that were available. While there were books about individual African American women and their experiences in the oppressive American system, she believed that those women’s stories could not be generalized for all African American women. It was necessary to have a book at this time that acknowledged not black women and the two typesRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War1499 Words   |  6 Pagesrepetition. African Americans lived a life of torture and control. Every aspect of their life was supervised, including their clothing. Slaves were forced to dress all similar, and were provided with minimal inexpensive fabric to cover their bodies. Disallowing them to choose their personal attire stripped African Americans from their ide ntity. African Americans went through horrific period of time, forcing them to live inhumanely and poorly. ` Slavery, a corrupt period of time for African Americans continuesRead MoreEssay on Slavery, Womens Rights and Inequality in America1540 Words   |  7 Pagestyranny. The foundation of American values lay in a belief of independence, nationalism, capitalism, and religion. However, many conflicts have arisen over these values in the past. Capitalism and other characteristics have made America great, but they have brought about their own set of inequalities. Those inequalities have deep roots in race, culture, gender, and wealth. In the 1800s two of the biggest conflict lies with the issue of slavery and women’s rights. African slaves helped build the

Monday, December 23, 2019

Essay about The Case Analysis of Caffeine - 765 Words

Part One: The ethical issue of Fair Trade coffee We all know that coffee is something essential in our daily and maybe we all used to have one of them when it is needed, but only a few of us know the trading process of coffee and how does it travel from the coffee tree to our paper cup. The article is mainly about the unfair trading in the coffee trading process and provided a idea called Fair Trade coffee, but even the Fair trade have some ethical issues. Because there is too many stages in coffee trading and big companies like Procter Gamble, Kraft food and Nestle etc. purchased so many coffees that they have the edge and power to almost control coffee purchased price from famers. Because of the two reasons, it has been a long time†¦show more content†¦When facing the customers, those companies or stores claims their products are produced by Fair Trade coffee beans should be honest to customers because customers cant know where the coffee beans are from, how much the companies paid for those coffee beans. These information can only be known from the companies itself. So at the time period, companies should be responsible to customers if they charge more money because customers are buying a Fair Trade coffee. When think about the farmers prospect, companies should also be responsible for them because the price paid to them should be reasonable when linked to their retail price. Like companies charged 1 more dollar on a Fair Trade coffee but only increased 50 cents to the coffee beans purchase price, its a dishonest to the farmers and it will be no longer a Fair Trade. Another thing companies should be responsible to farmers is that when they suggesting to increase or decrease the plant grow amount, they have to be responsible for the consequence instead of leave the farmers away after out of control in purchase price or purchase number. Part Three: The companies response and solutions to the issue The companies who conducted fake Fair Trade activities has apologized for their behavior and changed their price to which it suppose to be. There are some big companies provided Fair Trade products dont care much about the problem because most of their coffee are not from Fair Trade coffee beans so there isShow MoreRelatedFood Safety And Risk Analysis Essay1676 Words   |  7 PagesThis risk assessment has been conducted as a part of the course requirement for Eco. 330. 01- Food Safety/Risk Analysis to explore the level of concern surrounding caffeine consumption by 18 to 23-year-old female college students. Using convenience sampling techniques to gather initial data, 50 data sets on caffeine consumption were collected on four categories of caffeinated beverages: coffee, energy drinks, soft drinks and everything else. Furthermore, the Palisade Decision Tools Suite’s Risk 7Read MoreEssay about Isolation of Components of Bc Powder1655 Words   |  7 Pages! Isolation of the Components of BC Powder Introduction Aspirin, Caffeine and Salicylamide were extracted from an over-the-counter pain reliever (BC Powder). These components were separated by manipulating their solubilities by adjusting the acidity and basicity of the solution. By doing this, the three components were forced into conjugate acid (or base) forms, causing selective solubility in either an aqueous or organic solvent. These layers were then separated by use of a separation funnelRead MoreLiterature Review : High Blood Pressure1107 Words   |  5 Pagesenvironment and certain chronic conditions. Although there is a decrement cases noted over the last decades, the prevalence in children and older adults has significantly increased in both developed and developing countries, hence, constitute an alarming public health concern around the world. Recognizing strategies to combat this concern such as nutrition and diet awareness can consequentially make an impact at the global level. Caffeine consumption shares an extensive proportion of consumers by differentRead MoreCaffeine and Reaction Time1286 Words   |  6 PagesDaniel Kim 12-3-12 HBS, period 1 Reaction time experiment Caffeine and Reaction Time 1) Identify the Problem or Question How does the consumption of caffeine affect the reaction time of the nervous system? 2) Introduction Purpose of the experiment: To identify the whether or not caffeine increases or decreases the reaction time of the nervous system. In our experiment, we have decided to use all the â€Å"cases† which will test how fast a signal from our brain will be sent to ourRead Moreenergy dirink lab Essay1024 Words   |  5 Pagesvitality required for sustained physical or mental activity. 2. What is the physiological role of each of the molecules in your table? The role of each of the molecules in my table is to 1. Which ingredients provide energy? How do they do that? Caffeine, sugars and many more provide energy by stimulating the central nervous system giving the body a sense of alertness. It can raise heart rate and blood pressure while dehydrating the body. 2. Which ingredients contribute to body repair, I.e., whichRead MoreNutritional Supplements For Athletes, Professional Bodybuilders, And Fitness Enthusiasts For More Than 22 Years1531 Words   |  7 PagesN-Large2â„ ¢ †¢ N-Large3â„ ¢ †¢ Essential Whey †¢ Whey Isolate †¢ Amino Gel-Caps †¢ BCAA Plus †¢ Beta Alanine Powder †¢ Beta Alanine Extreme ® †¢ Creatine Monohydrate †¢ Glutamine Powder †¢ Horny Goat Weed †¢ Quick Fire ® Weight Management †¢ Advanced Caffeine ® †¢ Caffeine †¢ Caffeine Fast Dissolve †¢ Cuts II ® Gold †¢ L-Carnitine †¢ Thermo Fire PROLAB products are available at sports nutrition stores, fine independent health food retailers, and military bases throughout the globe where it sustains a premium qualityRead MoreChromatography of Commercial Analgesics878 Words   |  4 Pageschromatography the major components of a commercial analgesic tablet will be indentified and purified. The active ingredients of the analgesic used were characterized by comparison with chromatograms of aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, mefanemic acid, and caffeine through the use of UV chromatography then the Rf value was calculated for each solvent. INTRODUCTION In this experiment, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) will be used to determine the composition of various analgesics. Chromatography is aRead MoreQuantitative Analysis : Market Trends And Developments And Impact On The Business1633 Words   |  7 Pages†¢ Number of kilometers target customers located from *** company: 5 km – 10 km 10 km – 15 km 15 km – 20 km 20 km – 25 km 25 km – 30 km 30 km – 35 km 35 km – 40 km Quantitative analysis techniques Results Result mean in terms of market trends and developments and impact on the business mean 20 km The mean (or average) is the most popular and well known measure of central tendency. It can be used with both discrete and continuous data, although its use is most often with continuous data median 20 kmRead MoreCoffee Is The Most Consumed Drink Of The World And Especially For College Students1284 Words   |  6 Pagesregions that control sleep, mood, and concentration, slowly dissipating over three to four hours, which is plenty of time for you to get through your morning inbox, survive the staff meeting, return a few calls, and then get ready for lunch. In some cases, coffee has been discussed to protection against many kinds of diseases while the others it was tied to adverse effects. Many researchers have found out that drinking coffee can reduce the risks of many diseases, such as diabetes type II, liver diseaseRead MoreSwot Analysis Of Energy Drink1563 Words   |  7 Pages 4. Keylee Brown 4.0 S.W.O.T Analysis: Threats Threats (Keylee) When it comes to Monsters Energy there are a few threats they have like competitors, government regulations, people learning about the harm from energy drinks, and people moving to healthier alternatives. Monsters biggest threat to their business it would be one of their competitors, Red Bull. In 2015, Red Bull had a market share of about 43%, while Monster in a close second had 39% of the market, allowing them to have that slight advantage

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Social and environmental accounting case study of AVIVA and CSR Free Essays

string(91) " clear that some part of the world is trying to do something on behalf of the environment\." Introduction Corporate Social Report (CSR) is one of the ways to check how well developed accounting is in the company. Oliver Dubigeon in its article discerns two kinds of companies: the one who begin to account for their social, corporate and environmental responsibility to improve the impression of their reputation and acceptability to civil society and the second who understands that it is a response at this very moment to the ‘right to knowledge and participation’ that civil society is demanding, if not to eliminate the risks to their daily life and to future generations, then at least to control and master them. First and second parts of this report will be analyzing an insurance company AVIVA, who like one of international community member, has its corporate responsibility. We will write a custom essay sample on Social and environmental accounting case study of AVIVA and CSR or any similar topic only for you Order Now So it is necessary to find out whether this company belongs to the first or second category of discerned companies. Moreover, it is important to look how accountability is pursued in AVIVA company and how it takes responsibility in solving global warming problem. The second part of the report also considers the impact of professional accountancy bodies in global warming, how they deal with global warming issue in reporting. The third part will evaluate the role of global Socially Responsible Investment on the development of accountability. This section will not be specifically concerned with AVIVA company, but it will be considering about the increase of accountability and social and environmental accounting and of course the behaviour for companies. Part 1 – accountability Accountability is a concept that relates to flows of information, where those controlling resources provide accounts to society of their use of those resources. So, corporate accountability can be defined as the systematic and public communication of information that is designed to justify an organization’s decisions and actions to various stakeholders.The other definition of accountability made Gray, Owen and Adamsshows that there are two duties: responsibility to take actions and responsibility to account for those actions. The best feature of accountability is that it can show the external verification of the company’s performance – how well they minimize the social impact of a company’s activity, provide good working conditions for employees and contractors, and create an acceptable arrangement for the distribution of benefits and services. It also can show that company does not carry out with its duties properly. Social Reporting(CSR) is one of the biggest challenges for company on CSR and lack of understanding how properly to do this can be the main problem in bad reporting. Sometimes the content of a report do not reflect actual performance, or it may be incomplete. The problem is that many organisations do not really understand the meaning and purpose of CSR. It is a mistake to think that it is simply engaging in philanthropic activities or making donations. It involves much more than this. Companies do the reporting because of very different reasons. Ones wants to reveal all the information about company’s acts to society, other want to create a â€Å"positive† look about the company, and the thirds just do not really know why they do this, but just tries to follow the â€Å"model† companies’ example. Annual report and the financial statements are as a mechanism for discharging accountability. It also includes financial and non-financial information to improve transparency and understandable information enabling users to assess a firm’s performance. AVIVA is an insurance company in which CRS involves a strong organisational commitment to social obligations and the internalization of these obligations in the culture of the organization as well as the mobilization of employees to execute these obligations in their day-to-day actions. But is it all like it soundsAVIVA looks like a big company which seeks to be the leading one in insurance industry, but there can be very contradictory reasons for doing this: the ones which company wants to tell in public and the others which it wants to keep inside the company. The reasons AVIVA company is so active and responsible in such reporting is because it feels responsible for being an example of correct behaviour for all other beings, this company cares about planet and people. These non – financial reasons shows about companies universal responsibility. There are and financial reasons, which are promoted in CSR, such as reducing risks and increasing profits, because of an improved reputation in various markets.This company reacts to its customers, colleagues and everyone where they operate and takes positive actions towards climate change that shows good level in listening and dialogue with the society around it. Although, AVIVA makes an impact to accountability, they improve their skills and experience every year and this can be easily seen in their reports. Company was one of the first companies who helped developing and started using the HRH Prince of Wales’ Accounting for Sustainability (A4S) connected reporting framework for their performance report.Using this framework AVIVA reported about greenhouse gas emissions, waste, resource usage, customer advocacy and investing in communities. AVIVA is a very good example for other organisations who wish to connect sustainability performance with business strategy. This company has a very valuable case study, which explains how following Connected Reporting Framework reaches good sustainability reporting practice. AVIVA also put their CR Report to a separate shareholder vote at the 2010 AGM and they are the first company in UK by doing this. All this proves about Aviva’s active and valuable contribution to CSR, because even being a right example for other companies it already helps for better and clearer understanding in CSR area which is still found difficult for organisations to understand and make valuable reporting. Part 2 – accounting for global warming Today’s actions will affect future generations, and nowhere is this more evident than in our approach to climate change and the environment. Global warmin is long lasting problem in the world. There are a lot of different opinions about this, but it is clear that some part of the world is trying to do something on behalf of the environment. You read "Social and environmental accounting case study of AVIVA and CSR" in category "Essay examples" The insurance industry has the most to lose from the increasingly extreme weather that scientists agree is the result of global warming. Aviva’s strategy is to control their own impacts and resources, including water, gas, waste and electricity. The main impact on the environment is Aviva’s total carbon dioxide emissions. There is a small number of companies, who are carbon neutral, but AVIVA was the first insurer to offset emissions on a global basis and become carbon – neutral, this company is a good example for all other companies, who used more to talk than to act. AVIVA is a signatory and responding company to the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP), moreover, in 2009 it was ranked eighth in the Carbon Disclosure Leadership Index for the FTSE350, third in the financial services sector and 38th overall in the FSTE Global 500. The results of emission reducing is best seen now, when in 2008 company reduced 6,6% of CO2 emissions and further 5,2% in 2009. Companies aim is to reduce their carbon emissions by 30% till 2020, from their 2006 baseline, which is 120000 tones of CO2. Company also encourages others to do the same, to manage and reduce the CO2 output, because CO2 is the principal ‘greenhouse’ gas contributing to global warming. AVIVA has invested in cutting-edge tropical storm research, revamped its flood models to incorporate global warming, publicized the need for action and encouraged reduced vehicle usage with pay-as-you-drive insurance. During the period of 2005 – 2010 AVIVA company continuously improved and reported of their direct and indirect environmental impacts. In all these years AVIVA company is trying to develop products and services that provide a positive link between climate change and premium paid. In 2005 AVIVA established a climate change forum to coordinate related activities across their businesses. In the same year, company involved in including flood research, flood mitigation and prevention work, sponsored a pan-European flood project. 2008 was the year, when AVIVA concentrated on water: they helped people to prepare to deal with a flood and shared the information how to limit the damage. Company is encouraging others to make responsible choices and tries to promote good environmental practice among their colleagues, customers and suppliers. In fact, Norwich Union is playing a leading role helping to mitigate the effects of global warming. The other offer made, seeking to provide right dec isions for environment was in 2006, by offering reduced premium insurance for drivers of hybrid and flexi – fuel Ford cars. 2007 was the year of projects. During this time, AVIVA made a progress on three strategic areas to combat climate change: carbon reduction, carbon offsetting and enhanced employee education and engagement. Biogasproject, wind turbineproject, â€Å"Green cement†project, treadle plumps and other projects where AVIVA company participates, shows that this company is very active in environments protection, it belongs to various organizations, sponsors projects and also takes valuable actions inside the company, such as signing a ‘green’ service level agreement with Hewlett Packard (HP) in 2009, for the provision and running of two data centers which are ran by ‘eco friendly’ or renewable power sources. AVIVA is an independent auditor, which uses the guidance of rules made of International Federation of Accountants’ (IFAC). This organisation made a contribution to global warming by considering this problem from a strategic perspective: it explored the enterprise governance model which encourages organisations to view governance as having a performance as well as conformance perspective. The aim of this model was to consider why corporate governance often fails in companies and, more importantly, what must be done to ensure that things go right. It still seems like the professional accountancy bodies are not involved in global warming problems as they could be.This proposition is wrong, because a professional accountancy body keeps an eye to global economy. Issue of sustainability is not an exemption too. In the company accountants might also become involved in the development of environmental and social accounting, by doing this, accountants would be involved in the organization’s management of environmental performance at all points of the company.Environmental accounting, accurate global warming, shows the interaction between the world and the company. Part 3 – socially responsible investment UK Investment Forum, describes socially responsible investment (SRI) as ‘‘investments enabling investors to combine financial objectives with their social values’’.Miller A. SRI equates to Ethical investments and explains them as the contribution towards particular social and environmental aims. So, socially responsible investment seeks for two benefits: social good and financial return. The problem arises when this investment becomes more money making than improving social, ethical values, becoming eco – friendly company. Of course, it can not be said about all organisations that they look just for profit for themselves, in many companies it is more a positive issue – they help environment, takes care of it and also helps other companies as being a right example. That shows that positive and negative criteria’s can be made analyzing SRI market. In recent years, SRI has experienced an explosive growth around the world. The growing increase in global SRI determines the better and wider understanding about companies ethical values in environment. Without good environmental management company would not achieve the maximum of profitable green investing. It is understandable why companies want financial profits of all investments, but it is important to seek more for the positive aspects of the green investments. So, there are negative and positive aspects investing in SRI. Ethical investments have financial returns, but unfortunately very small ones. Anyway, the SRI is expected not to stop growing, because it does not matter that there will be less companies, who aims to get non-financial utility from investing in SRI, it is important that at least some investors would care less about financial performance. Crisis has led to the increase of financial accounting. One of the reasons for such close accounting implication can be that a company can show very positive ‘success’ indicators to the environment by doing this. Moreover, the information made by accountants is needed for profitable shareholders decisions in global socially responsible investments. Social accounting (social reporting) provides all stakeholders with information about the social and environmental activities and impacts of the organizationit is necessary because it is the way for stakeholders to decide for themselves if a company was really socially responsible or not.Firms ignoring social responsibility may destroy long run shareholder value due to reputation losses and/or potential litigation costs. Issue like global warming has gained attention by governments and investors around the world. This means that increase in SRI will not stop growing. Environmental reporting is one of two areas where environmental agenda has encouraged the greatest development in organizational practice.The good thing is if the company gets non-financial benefits from SRI, because in that case the investors would not care so much about the money, financial profit, which they can get from these investments. Otherwise the problems with personal or societal values can arise. The question needed to answer is whether the stakeholders care about the values mentioned aboveUnfortunately, social disclosure and social performance are the subjects shareholders care about just in how they affect the financial performance. The ethical positions of organizations, takes just a little part of the things shareholders cares about. The ethical norms which characterize a company are fundamental to any green investment analysis. They include the integrity of the vision and leadership of top management, and a company’s openness and accountability to its employees and to the outside world. Companies economic behaviour can be seen in the works it done. The increase in SRI is one of the factors which can determine and reveal whether the company has positive or negative behaviour in investing. Heinkel et al. (2001) suggests looking if company investors are green or neutral investors and whether they have a clean or a polluting technology. The other problem is that the company which is pursuing social and environmental goals can suffer in competitive market. So, both of the profits need to be balanced. SRI must be an investment where part of the returns is donated to good causes.Corporate governance have to reflect the positive screening of the company, it is preferred that company would be focused on social welfare in addition to value maximization. Conclusion AVIVA company is one of these companies who cares about their customers, employers and tries to be the right example for everyone in reporting, activities related with environment, behavior which can be called representative for other organizations in successful development. Being the leading organization in Corporate reporting this company seeks to concentrate to positive values and behavior. AVIVA company makes a lot of good works in global warming issue, it is active inside and outside the organization, tries to â€Å"infect† the other organizations and people by environmentally friendly behavior and the results is already seen. Of course, only positive and valuable works showed in Aviva’s Corporate reporting makes human doubts about good faith of this company, but otherwise by having a good name this company gain confidence of customers, shows a good example for other insurers and of course the same logics asks a question why such company would harm and disparage it s reputationSo, it can be said that this company is the one who understands that it is responsible to control and master the ‘right to knowledge and participation’ which civil society is demanding for. Bibliography Books: Dave Owen ‘Green Reporting: Accountancy and the challenge of the nineties’ Chapman Hall 1992 Gray, R., Owen, D. and Adams, C., Accounting and accountability: Changes and challenges in corporate social and environmental reporting, London: Prentice Hall Europe, 1996 John Houghton ‘Global Warming : the complete briefing ’ 2nd edition, Cambridge University P., 1994 Jose Allouche, Corporate Social Responsibility Volume 1 Concepts, Accountability and Reporting, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006 Rob Gray, Dave Owen, Keith Maunders Corporate Social Reporting: Accounting and accountability 1987 Rob Gray, Jan Bebbington Accounting for the environment 2nd edition, Rob Gray with Jan Bebbington 2001 Journal articles: Anne Ellerup Nielsen, Christa Thomsen ‘Reporting CSR – what and how to say it?’ 2007 Aarhus School of Business, Denmark Volume: 12 Issue:1 pp. 25-40 Ainscough, T., Hill, R.P., Shank, T. Manullang, D. 2007, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility and Socially Responsible Investing: A Global Perspective’, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 165-174. Experts who put a premium on expecting the worst and working out what it costs NON-FINANCIAL RISK: Mike Scott looks at the mechanisms employed by the insurance industry to minimise the impact of risk on its balance sheet: SURVEYS EDITION 2007, , London (UK). Garry Booth, ‘Climate change: Talk needs to turn into action’, 2008 Reactions. Janet M Epps and Fiona L Solomon, ‘Adding Social Value Through Accountability in Mineral Development’ 2000 The AusIMM Annual Conference, Sydney, [online]. Available from: http://www.minerals.csiro.au/sd/CSIRO_Paper_Accountability.htm [accessed 20/03/11] Jean Raar ‘Reported social and environmental taxonomies: a longer-term glimpse’ 2007 Deakin University, Burwood, Australia Volume: 22 Issue: 8 pp. 840-860 McGuire, D. Garavan, T.N., ‘Human Resource Development and Society: Human Resource Development’s Role in Embedding Corporate Social Responsibility, Sustainability, and Ethics in Organizations’, 2010, vol. 12, no. 5, Advances in Developing Human Resources, pp. 487-507 Ter Horst, J., Zhang, C. Renneboog, L. 2008, ‘Socially responsible investments: Institutional aspects, performance, and investor behavior’, Journal of Banking Finance, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1723-1742. Reports and On-line sources: Aviva plc Annual Report and Accounts 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006 and 2005 [online]. Available from: http://www.aviva.com/corporate-responsibility/reports/?category=All [accessed 01/03/11] Accounting for Sustainability. [online]. Available from: http://www.accountingforsustainability.org/output/Page136.asp [accessed 01/03/11] Climate care. Treadle pumps in India. [online]. Available from: http://www.jpmorganclimatecare.com/projects/countries/treadle-india/ [accessed 14/03/11] Climate friendly Hebei Kangbao Wind Project Project Profile [online]. Available from: https://climatefriendly.com/projects [accessed 20/03/11] International Federation of Accountants [online] Available from: http://www.ifac.org/ [accessed 13/04/11] Insurance company AVIVA web page [online]. Available from: http://www.aviva.co.uk/ [accessed 20/02/11] Going green [online]. Available from: http://www.lowcarbonconcrete.ie/documents/ScanofarticleJan2009-smallOCR.pdf [accessed 20/03/11] Practical Action. Biogas: power from cow dung. [online]. Available from: http://practicalaction.org/biogas [accessed 14/03/11] Special English development report. ‘The Importance of a Simple Water Pump’[online]. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A36hUKNPy-Q [accessed 20/02/11] How to cite Social and environmental accounting case study of AVIVA and CSR, Free Case study samples

Friday, December 6, 2019

The Logical Form of Data

Question: Describe the decision process for determining the logical form of data collection and how data are stored once the data are collected, Assess the purpose of information storage systems. Create a taxonomy based on a concept (e.g., decision-making) describing the benefits of various types of databases (e.g., spatial, object-relational, extended relational, bio-diversity [taxonomic], multimedia), optical storages, and data warehouses (e.g., web-enabled, data marts) and the purpose of the data stored. Conclude how organizational leaders might deploy your model to make effective business decisions. Answer: Data Collection and Data Storage Data collection and management is a strategic approach to gathering the data and information from the relevant source and storing those data in an appropriate and useful manner. The collection of data begins after a research problem is defined. This defined an ongoing systematic collection; analysis and interpretation of data are for future use (Freeman, 2010). Data collected in a systematic manner and then stored in appropriate manner helps in searching of data in future. That means if any information needed in future then one can directly refer to the collected data for quick search, this helps in saving a lot of time of persons, and they can easily focus on their other job. There are two types of data Primary and Secondary data. Data collected for the first time is Primary data, and data collected by someone or already passed is secondary data. Tough for collecting these data there is need for take correct decision such as decision of collecting the data from the correct and appro priate source, data collected is relevant or not, unnecessarily collection of a lot of data, attention to policy and procedure of gathering data etc. This decision-making process for the collection of data is very important (Rudolph, 2014). There a various method employed for collection of data. Some of them are mentioned below: Direct Observations After the collection of data the second concern is storage of data. Data collection is not only to how and what is collected but also how to store data.After collecting the data those data, must be stored securely but also made easily available for analysis. Basic data processing principles should followed for management of data. Original raw data should be stored in the databases. Data collection systems should be integrated to the data management systems. An adequate personnel and financial resources are needed to maintain, make regular archives protect the data. To ensure the confidentiality and integrity access must need to be controlled. Earlier to store the collected data traditional methods were used but today is the time of electronic data storage (Kew, 2010). This storage format is easily adaptable to evolving computers. Some other considerations for storing the data electronically such as: Low cost Fast access to data Capability to archive the data A backup system In above discussion data collection and storing the collected data is discussed in details that clarify the types, method of data collection, and the importance of storing the data securely. Information Storage Systems Computes are highly efficient for storing the managing the data. Computers have the capability to collate the vast amount of data and information. With the widespread use of databases, spreadsheets, emails, transfer of data electronically have increased the speed as well as the volume of storing the data. These techniques also help in turning the individuals bits of data into useful information for others. Information storage media also can be hardware that is used to accumulate the huge amount of data physically. These storage devices come mainly in three forms: optic, solid state and magnetic. Floppy disks, tapes and hard drives are the form of magnetic storage systems (McCool and St. Amant, 2009). Optical devices came in forms of flat circular discs and made of very strong plastic. Solid state storage systems are mainly available in three forms SSD (solid- state-drives), SSC (solid- state- cards) and SSM (solid- state- modules). These devices are used for the storage of large amou nt data for a long period sometimes forever. The software devices are economical and easy to carry anywhere along with us. Maintenance of these devices is also easy. The use of e-mails, spreadsheets, databases are also easy to access and manage from anywhere. Taxonomy Describing the Benefits of Databases A strategic potential of the Information System is now well recognized. The five decision-making processesnamely, planned, provincial, incremental, fluid, and politicalseem quite distinct, in terms of the activities involved and the influences encountered, as well as the conditions under which they are used. A database is created to accumulate information there are several advantages of databases systems such as enhanced data sharing, improved data security, better data integration, data inconsistency is less, improved data access, Improved decision making, increased end- user productivity, etc. Decision making is better because of improved access to data and better management of data (Larson, 1982). It is a comprehensive data to promote the timeliness, accuracy and validity of data providing a framework to facilitate data quality initiatives. An object- relational Database system is database extends the relational database management systems. In this databases attributes of tuples to have complex types including the non- atomic values. In the schemas of the object, classes and inheritance are supported directly in schemas of database and query language. Relational foundations are preserved in this database model. Spatial Database Management System allows spatial data types in the model as well as in query language. Spatial indexing is important and mandatory (Sunil, Seetha and Vinotha, 2012). This type of database also supports connected objects from different classes are also supported by this type of database through some spatial relationships. Extended Relational Database Systems: Extended relational databases are widely used for designing of database tools. E-R model of database designing is used for storage and processing. It is usually converted into the relational model (DATABASE Editorial Board 2009, 2009). This model describes the relation between two entities more broadly. This model is extended form of relational database. Bio- Diversity Database model is created to accumulate the information related to biological taxa. Taxonomic database systems are the automated construction of biological checklists. These databases are used to keep the track of biological information. This information stored in the taxonomic database can be accessed and used by any medical representatives or students, researchers or by anyone for the research purpose or to analyze the information and results provided (Wilde, 2010). Multimedia Database is the storage of multimedia data such as text, audio, video, images, animations, graphics, etc. This database is the combination of different media. With the rapid increase in digital information today the multimedia databases are used. This database is different from the traditional database management systems. Multimedia database is composed of complex data. Optical Storage is the electronic medium for storing the data. In optical storage, the data can be stored by using the low power laser beams. Digital data are encoded in the form of optical data with the help of laser beams. It provides a huge storage capacity. With the development of WORM, optical disks are now erasable but earlier it was not available. Data Warehouses are in support of decision- making process, non- volatile, time invariant, and subject oriented relational database designed for query and analysis. It does not support the transaction processing. Use of Database for making Effective Business Decisions A direct and positive impact has been made by the Database Management System (IT) on decision- making.Firms have found applications of Database Management System for their enterprise decision making necessities. To get a fruitful use of resources is expected from any IT system (McDougall, 2014). There are various examples which show the contribution of Database Management System in enhancing Decision- making in the corporate field (Birkinshaw and Jenkins, 2010). A direct and positive impact has been made by the Database Management System on decision making.Firms have found applications of database management system for their enterprise decision- making necessities. To get a fruitful use of resources is expected from any Database Management System (DATABASE Editorial Board 2009, 2009). Some points are mentioned below which help in improving decision- making for leaders in business: Enhanced data sharing Improved data security Better data integration Data inconsistency is less Improved data access Improved decision making Increased end- user productivity References: Birkinshaw, J., Jenkins, H. (2010). MAKING BETTER RISK MANAGEMENT DECISIONS.Business Strategy Review,21(4), 41-45. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8616.2010.00704.x DATABASE Editorial Board 2009. 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