Tuesday, December 31, 2019

African American Women Under Slavery Essay - 2412 Words

African American Women Under Slavery This paper discusses the experiences of African American Women under slavery during the Slave Trade, their exploitation, the secrecy, the variety of tasks and positions of slave women, slave and ex-slave narratives, and significant contributions to history. Also, this paper presents the hardships African American women faced and the challenges they overcame to become equal with men in today’s society. Slavery was a destructive experience for African Americans especially women. Black women suffered doubly during the slave era. Slave Trade For most women who endured it, the experience of the Slave Trade was one of being outnumbered by men. Roughly one African woman was carried across the†¦show more content†¦Exploitation The slave owner’s exploitation of the black woman’s sexuality was one of the most significant factors differentiating the experience of slavery for males and females. The white man’s claim to the slave body, male as well as female, was inherent in the concept of the Slave Trade and was tangibly realized perhaps no where more than the auction block. Captive Africans were stripped of their clothing, oiled down, and poked and prodded by potential buyers. The erotic undertones of such scenes were particularly pronounced in the case of black women. Throughout the period of slavery in America, white society believed black women to be innately lustful beings. The perception of the African woman as hyper-sexual made her both the object of white man’s abhor rence and his fantasy. Within the bonds of slavery, masters often felt it was their right to engage in sexual activity with black women. Sometimes, female slaves made advances hoping that such relationships would increase the chances that they or their children would be liberated by the master. Most of the time, slave owners took slaves by force. For the most part, masters made young, single slaves the objects of their sexual pursuits. They did on occasion rape married women. The inability of the slave husband to protect his wife from such violation points to another fundamental aspect of the relationship between enslavedShow MoreRelatedVoices Of Freedom : Slavery s Impact On African American Literature1204 Words   |  5 PagesSlavery’s impact on African American Literature In the early to mid-nineteenth century, America found itself divided over the issue of slavery. The culture, traditions, and economy of southern states depended heavily on slave labor, while the northern states opposed the institution of slavery. Even though the slave trade was declared illegal in the early nineteenth century, slavery itself was not illegalized until more than a half century later. Abolitionists used powerful anti-slavery writings as aRead MoreA Brief Note On The Civil War And Its Impact On Women s Rights1461 Words   |  6 Pagesamendments that eliminated slavery, gave citizenship to everyone born in the United States, protected people’s rights to due process, required equal protection under the law, and guaranteed voting rights to all American men. However, African American men were still segregated in terms of housing, work, equal pay, and schooling. Despite this unfair treatment, African American men received better treatment compared to their female counterparts. After the Civil War, all American women did not have the sameRead MorePrimary Source Analysis : Virginian Luxuries1339 Words   |  6 Pages Relationships of power that featured in â€Å"Virginian Luxuries† (Document 1) include the relation between white power and African American slaves. On the left side of the portrait, their seems to be a white male kissing an enslave women, which is very ironic during this time period. On the left side of the portrait, it seems to be a white slave owner, whipping an African American slave. During this time, white people were not supposed to have any relationship with people of colored skin, but as historyRead MoreThe Life Of A Slave Girl By John S. Jacobs And A True Tale Of Slavery963 Words   |  4 PagesSlavery in the American South is a well-documented culture with a well-known theme of corruption; however, Harriett A. Jacobs provides new insight as to the feministic repression due to the happenings of slavery. In â€Å"Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl† by Harriett A. Jacobs and â€Å"A True Tale of Slavery† by John S. Jacobs, the corrupting power of slav ery is established as a central theme that accompanied the sexual exploitation of African American women. Both authors give individualized understandingsRead MoreThe Effects of Slavery on the African-American Family Structure1272 Words   |  5 PagesEffects of Slavery on the African American Family Structure Slavery had an immense impact on African American families, as the familial dynamic of the African American family was in many ways responsible for the stereotypes surrounding black families in the present moment. Not only were families the sole property of their slave owner, but there were laws restricting their rights and privileges. However, despite the fact that the African American slave family existed in a perpetually tumultuousRead MoreThe Impact Of The Westward Expansion On Women And African Americans991 Words   |  4 Pages The Impact of the Westward Expansion on Women and African Americans The Westward Expansion started prior to The Revolutionary War, settlers were migrating westward to what states are now modern day Kentucky and Tennessee in hopes for a fruitful life and larger job opportunity. This Westward Expansion was aided through the Louisiana purchase in 1803, in which the United States purchased territory from France, resulting in doubling in size of the country. This Louisiana purchase was stretchedRead MoreThe Path to Aboliton 1312 Words   |  5 Pagespolitical minds of Americans striving to influence the participation of the abolition movement. One of the many strategies used by American abolitionists was the use of slave narratives. This moral persuasion was a very useful tactic. The creation of these narratives helped white northerners identify with the mindset of an African American slave in the south. The narratives illustrated the experiences slaves overcame to find freedom. Another major strategy that was useful to the slavery movement was theRe ad MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Aint I A Woman 1079 Words   |  5 Pageslives of Black women in America from Slavery to the present and their relation to feminism. Hooks felt that there was an absence of books about the African American woman that were available. While there were books about individual African American women and their experiences in the oppressive American system, she believed that those women’s stories could not be generalized for all African American women. It was necessary to have a book at this time that acknowledged not black women and the two typesRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War1499 Words   |  6 Pagesrepetition. African Americans lived a life of torture and control. Every aspect of their life was supervised, including their clothing. Slaves were forced to dress all similar, and were provided with minimal inexpensive fabric to cover their bodies. Disallowing them to choose their personal attire stripped African Americans from their ide ntity. African Americans went through horrific period of time, forcing them to live inhumanely and poorly. ` Slavery, a corrupt period of time for African Americans continuesRead MoreEssay on Slavery, Womens Rights and Inequality in America1540 Words   |  7 Pagestyranny. The foundation of American values lay in a belief of independence, nationalism, capitalism, and religion. However, many conflicts have arisen over these values in the past. Capitalism and other characteristics have made America great, but they have brought about their own set of inequalities. Those inequalities have deep roots in race, culture, gender, and wealth. In the 1800s two of the biggest conflict lies with the issue of slavery and women’s rights. African slaves helped build the

Monday, December 23, 2019

Essay about The Case Analysis of Caffeine - 765 Words

Part One: The ethical issue of Fair Trade coffee We all know that coffee is something essential in our daily and maybe we all used to have one of them when it is needed, but only a few of us know the trading process of coffee and how does it travel from the coffee tree to our paper cup. The article is mainly about the unfair trading in the coffee trading process and provided a idea called Fair Trade coffee, but even the Fair trade have some ethical issues. Because there is too many stages in coffee trading and big companies like Procter Gamble, Kraft food and Nestle etc. purchased so many coffees that they have the edge and power to almost control coffee purchased price from famers. Because of the two reasons, it has been a long time†¦show more content†¦When facing the customers, those companies or stores claims their products are produced by Fair Trade coffee beans should be honest to customers because customers cant know where the coffee beans are from, how much the companies paid for those coffee beans. These information can only be known from the companies itself. So at the time period, companies should be responsible to customers if they charge more money because customers are buying a Fair Trade coffee. When think about the farmers prospect, companies should also be responsible for them because the price paid to them should be reasonable when linked to their retail price. Like companies charged 1 more dollar on a Fair Trade coffee but only increased 50 cents to the coffee beans purchase price, its a dishonest to the farmers and it will be no longer a Fair Trade. Another thing companies should be responsible to farmers is that when they suggesting to increase or decrease the plant grow amount, they have to be responsible for the consequence instead of leave the farmers away after out of control in purchase price or purchase number. Part Three: The companies response and solutions to the issue The companies who conducted fake Fair Trade activities has apologized for their behavior and changed their price to which it suppose to be. There are some big companies provided Fair Trade products dont care much about the problem because most of their coffee are not from Fair Trade coffee beans so there isShow MoreRelatedFood Safety And Risk Analysis Essay1676 Words   |  7 PagesThis risk assessment has been conducted as a part of the course requirement for Eco. 330. 01- Food Safety/Risk Analysis to explore the level of concern surrounding caffeine consumption by 18 to 23-year-old female college students. Using convenience sampling techniques to gather initial data, 50 data sets on caffeine consumption were collected on four categories of caffeinated beverages: coffee, energy drinks, soft drinks and everything else. Furthermore, the Palisade Decision Tools Suite’s Risk 7Read MoreEssay about Isolation of Components of Bc Powder1655 Words   |  7 Pages! Isolation of the Components of BC Powder Introduction Aspirin, Caffeine and Salicylamide were extracted from an over-the-counter pain reliever (BC Powder). These components were separated by manipulating their solubilities by adjusting the acidity and basicity of the solution. By doing this, the three components were forced into conjugate acid (or base) forms, causing selective solubility in either an aqueous or organic solvent. These layers were then separated by use of a separation funnelRead MoreLiterature Review : High Blood Pressure1107 Words   |  5 Pagesenvironment and certain chronic conditions. Although there is a decrement cases noted over the last decades, the prevalence in children and older adults has significantly increased in both developed and developing countries, hence, constitute an alarming public health concern around the world. Recognizing strategies to combat this concern such as nutrition and diet awareness can consequentially make an impact at the global level. Caffeine consumption shares an extensive proportion of consumers by differentRead MoreCaffeine and Reaction Time1286 Words   |  6 PagesDaniel Kim 12-3-12 HBS, period 1 Reaction time experiment Caffeine and Reaction Time 1) Identify the Problem or Question How does the consumption of caffeine affect the reaction time of the nervous system? 2) Introduction Purpose of the experiment: To identify the whether or not caffeine increases or decreases the reaction time of the nervous system. In our experiment, we have decided to use all the â€Å"cases† which will test how fast a signal from our brain will be sent to ourRead Moreenergy dirink lab Essay1024 Words   |  5 Pagesvitality required for sustained physical or mental activity. 2. What is the physiological role of each of the molecules in your table? The role of each of the molecules in my table is to 1. Which ingredients provide energy? How do they do that? Caffeine, sugars and many more provide energy by stimulating the central nervous system giving the body a sense of alertness. It can raise heart rate and blood pressure while dehydrating the body. 2. Which ingredients contribute to body repair, I.e., whichRead MoreNutritional Supplements For Athletes, Professional Bodybuilders, And Fitness Enthusiasts For More Than 22 Years1531 Words   |  7 PagesN-Large2â„ ¢ †¢ N-Large3â„ ¢ †¢ Essential Whey †¢ Whey Isolate †¢ Amino Gel-Caps †¢ BCAA Plus †¢ Beta Alanine Powder †¢ Beta Alanine Extreme ® †¢ Creatine Monohydrate †¢ Glutamine Powder †¢ Horny Goat Weed †¢ Quick Fire ® Weight Management †¢ Advanced Caffeine ® †¢ Caffeine †¢ Caffeine Fast Dissolve †¢ Cuts II ® Gold †¢ L-Carnitine †¢ Thermo Fire PROLAB products are available at sports nutrition stores, fine independent health food retailers, and military bases throughout the globe where it sustains a premium qualityRead MoreChromatography of Commercial Analgesics878 Words   |  4 Pageschromatography the major components of a commercial analgesic tablet will be indentified and purified. The active ingredients of the analgesic used were characterized by comparison with chromatograms of aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, mefanemic acid, and caffeine through the use of UV chromatography then the Rf value was calculated for each solvent. INTRODUCTION In this experiment, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) will be used to determine the composition of various analgesics. Chromatography is aRead MoreQuantitative Analysis : Market Trends And Developments And Impact On The Business1633 Words   |  7 Pages†¢ Number of kilometers target customers located from *** company: 5 km – 10 km 10 km – 15 km 15 km – 20 km 20 km – 25 km 25 km – 30 km 30 km – 35 km 35 km – 40 km Quantitative analysis techniques Results Result mean in terms of market trends and developments and impact on the business mean 20 km The mean (or average) is the most popular and well known measure of central tendency. It can be used with both discrete and continuous data, although its use is most often with continuous data median 20 kmRead MoreCoffee Is The Most Consumed Drink Of The World And Especially For College Students1284 Words   |  6 Pagesregions that control sleep, mood, and concentration, slowly dissipating over three to four hours, which is plenty of time for you to get through your morning inbox, survive the staff meeting, return a few calls, and then get ready for lunch. In some cases, coffee has been discussed to protection against many kinds of diseases while the others it was tied to adverse effects. Many researchers have found out that drinking coffee can reduce the risks of many diseases, such as diabetes type II, liver diseaseRead MoreSwot Analysis Of Energy Drink1563 Words   |  7 Pages 4. Keylee Brown 4.0 S.W.O.T Analysis: Threats Threats (Keylee) When it comes to Monsters Energy there are a few threats they have like competitors, government regulations, people learning about the harm from energy drinks, and people moving to healthier alternatives. Monsters biggest threat to their business it would be one of their competitors, Red Bull. In 2015, Red Bull had a market share of about 43%, while Monster in a close second had 39% of the market, allowing them to have that slight advantage

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Social and environmental accounting case study of AVIVA and CSR Free Essays

string(91) " clear that some part of the world is trying to do something on behalf of the environment\." Introduction Corporate Social Report (CSR) is one of the ways to check how well developed accounting is in the company. Oliver Dubigeon in its article discerns two kinds of companies: the one who begin to account for their social, corporate and environmental responsibility to improve the impression of their reputation and acceptability to civil society and the second who understands that it is a response at this very moment to the ‘right to knowledge and participation’ that civil society is demanding, if not to eliminate the risks to their daily life and to future generations, then at least to control and master them. First and second parts of this report will be analyzing an insurance company AVIVA, who like one of international community member, has its corporate responsibility. We will write a custom essay sample on Social and environmental accounting case study of AVIVA and CSR or any similar topic only for you Order Now So it is necessary to find out whether this company belongs to the first or second category of discerned companies. Moreover, it is important to look how accountability is pursued in AVIVA company and how it takes responsibility in solving global warming problem. The second part of the report also considers the impact of professional accountancy bodies in global warming, how they deal with global warming issue in reporting. The third part will evaluate the role of global Socially Responsible Investment on the development of accountability. This section will not be specifically concerned with AVIVA company, but it will be considering about the increase of accountability and social and environmental accounting and of course the behaviour for companies. Part 1 – accountability Accountability is a concept that relates to flows of information, where those controlling resources provide accounts to society of their use of those resources. So, corporate accountability can be defined as the systematic and public communication of information that is designed to justify an organization’s decisions and actions to various stakeholders.The other definition of accountability made Gray, Owen and Adamsshows that there are two duties: responsibility to take actions and responsibility to account for those actions. The best feature of accountability is that it can show the external verification of the company’s performance – how well they minimize the social impact of a company’s activity, provide good working conditions for employees and contractors, and create an acceptable arrangement for the distribution of benefits and services. It also can show that company does not carry out with its duties properly. Social Reporting(CSR) is one of the biggest challenges for company on CSR and lack of understanding how properly to do this can be the main problem in bad reporting. Sometimes the content of a report do not reflect actual performance, or it may be incomplete. The problem is that many organisations do not really understand the meaning and purpose of CSR. It is a mistake to think that it is simply engaging in philanthropic activities or making donations. It involves much more than this. Companies do the reporting because of very different reasons. Ones wants to reveal all the information about company’s acts to society, other want to create a â€Å"positive† look about the company, and the thirds just do not really know why they do this, but just tries to follow the â€Å"model† companies’ example. Annual report and the financial statements are as a mechanism for discharging accountability. It also includes financial and non-financial information to improve transparency and understandable information enabling users to assess a firm’s performance. AVIVA is an insurance company in which CRS involves a strong organisational commitment to social obligations and the internalization of these obligations in the culture of the organization as well as the mobilization of employees to execute these obligations in their day-to-day actions. But is it all like it soundsAVIVA looks like a big company which seeks to be the leading one in insurance industry, but there can be very contradictory reasons for doing this: the ones which company wants to tell in public and the others which it wants to keep inside the company. The reasons AVIVA company is so active and responsible in such reporting is because it feels responsible for being an example of correct behaviour for all other beings, this company cares about planet and people. These non – financial reasons shows about companies universal responsibility. There are and financial reasons, which are promoted in CSR, such as reducing risks and increasing profits, because of an improved reputation in various markets.This company reacts to its customers, colleagues and everyone where they operate and takes positive actions towards climate change that shows good level in listening and dialogue with the society around it. Although, AVIVA makes an impact to accountability, they improve their skills and experience every year and this can be easily seen in their reports. Company was one of the first companies who helped developing and started using the HRH Prince of Wales’ Accounting for Sustainability (A4S) connected reporting framework for their performance report.Using this framework AVIVA reported about greenhouse gas emissions, waste, resource usage, customer advocacy and investing in communities. AVIVA is a very good example for other organisations who wish to connect sustainability performance with business strategy. This company has a very valuable case study, which explains how following Connected Reporting Framework reaches good sustainability reporting practice. AVIVA also put their CR Report to a separate shareholder vote at the 2010 AGM and they are the first company in UK by doing this. All this proves about Aviva’s active and valuable contribution to CSR, because even being a right example for other companies it already helps for better and clearer understanding in CSR area which is still found difficult for organisations to understand and make valuable reporting. Part 2 – accounting for global warming Today’s actions will affect future generations, and nowhere is this more evident than in our approach to climate change and the environment. Global warmin is long lasting problem in the world. There are a lot of different opinions about this, but it is clear that some part of the world is trying to do something on behalf of the environment. You read "Social and environmental accounting case study of AVIVA and CSR" in category "Essay examples" The insurance industry has the most to lose from the increasingly extreme weather that scientists agree is the result of global warming. Aviva’s strategy is to control their own impacts and resources, including water, gas, waste and electricity. The main impact on the environment is Aviva’s total carbon dioxide emissions. There is a small number of companies, who are carbon neutral, but AVIVA was the first insurer to offset emissions on a global basis and become carbon – neutral, this company is a good example for all other companies, who used more to talk than to act. AVIVA is a signatory and responding company to the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP), moreover, in 2009 it was ranked eighth in the Carbon Disclosure Leadership Index for the FTSE350, third in the financial services sector and 38th overall in the FSTE Global 500. The results of emission reducing is best seen now, when in 2008 company reduced 6,6% of CO2 emissions and further 5,2% in 2009. Companies aim is to reduce their carbon emissions by 30% till 2020, from their 2006 baseline, which is 120000 tones of CO2. Company also encourages others to do the same, to manage and reduce the CO2 output, because CO2 is the principal ‘greenhouse’ gas contributing to global warming. AVIVA has invested in cutting-edge tropical storm research, revamped its flood models to incorporate global warming, publicized the need for action and encouraged reduced vehicle usage with pay-as-you-drive insurance. During the period of 2005 – 2010 AVIVA company continuously improved and reported of their direct and indirect environmental impacts. In all these years AVIVA company is trying to develop products and services that provide a positive link between climate change and premium paid. In 2005 AVIVA established a climate change forum to coordinate related activities across their businesses. In the same year, company involved in including flood research, flood mitigation and prevention work, sponsored a pan-European flood project. 2008 was the year, when AVIVA concentrated on water: they helped people to prepare to deal with a flood and shared the information how to limit the damage. Company is encouraging others to make responsible choices and tries to promote good environmental practice among their colleagues, customers and suppliers. In fact, Norwich Union is playing a leading role helping to mitigate the effects of global warming. The other offer made, seeking to provide right dec isions for environment was in 2006, by offering reduced premium insurance for drivers of hybrid and flexi – fuel Ford cars. 2007 was the year of projects. During this time, AVIVA made a progress on three strategic areas to combat climate change: carbon reduction, carbon offsetting and enhanced employee education and engagement. Biogasproject, wind turbineproject, â€Å"Green cement†project, treadle plumps and other projects where AVIVA company participates, shows that this company is very active in environments protection, it belongs to various organizations, sponsors projects and also takes valuable actions inside the company, such as signing a ‘green’ service level agreement with Hewlett Packard (HP) in 2009, for the provision and running of two data centers which are ran by ‘eco friendly’ or renewable power sources. AVIVA is an independent auditor, which uses the guidance of rules made of International Federation of Accountants’ (IFAC). This organisation made a contribution to global warming by considering this problem from a strategic perspective: it explored the enterprise governance model which encourages organisations to view governance as having a performance as well as conformance perspective. The aim of this model was to consider why corporate governance often fails in companies and, more importantly, what must be done to ensure that things go right. It still seems like the professional accountancy bodies are not involved in global warming problems as they could be.This proposition is wrong, because a professional accountancy body keeps an eye to global economy. Issue of sustainability is not an exemption too. In the company accountants might also become involved in the development of environmental and social accounting, by doing this, accountants would be involved in the organization’s management of environmental performance at all points of the company.Environmental accounting, accurate global warming, shows the interaction between the world and the company. Part 3 – socially responsible investment UK Investment Forum, describes socially responsible investment (SRI) as ‘‘investments enabling investors to combine financial objectives with their social values’’.Miller A. SRI equates to Ethical investments and explains them as the contribution towards particular social and environmental aims. So, socially responsible investment seeks for two benefits: social good and financial return. The problem arises when this investment becomes more money making than improving social, ethical values, becoming eco – friendly company. Of course, it can not be said about all organisations that they look just for profit for themselves, in many companies it is more a positive issue – they help environment, takes care of it and also helps other companies as being a right example. That shows that positive and negative criteria’s can be made analyzing SRI market. In recent years, SRI has experienced an explosive growth around the world. The growing increase in global SRI determines the better and wider understanding about companies ethical values in environment. Without good environmental management company would not achieve the maximum of profitable green investing. It is understandable why companies want financial profits of all investments, but it is important to seek more for the positive aspects of the green investments. So, there are negative and positive aspects investing in SRI. Ethical investments have financial returns, but unfortunately very small ones. Anyway, the SRI is expected not to stop growing, because it does not matter that there will be less companies, who aims to get non-financial utility from investing in SRI, it is important that at least some investors would care less about financial performance. Crisis has led to the increase of financial accounting. One of the reasons for such close accounting implication can be that a company can show very positive ‘success’ indicators to the environment by doing this. Moreover, the information made by accountants is needed for profitable shareholders decisions in global socially responsible investments. Social accounting (social reporting) provides all stakeholders with information about the social and environmental activities and impacts of the organizationit is necessary because it is the way for stakeholders to decide for themselves if a company was really socially responsible or not.Firms ignoring social responsibility may destroy long run shareholder value due to reputation losses and/or potential litigation costs. Issue like global warming has gained attention by governments and investors around the world. This means that increase in SRI will not stop growing. Environmental reporting is one of two areas where environmental agenda has encouraged the greatest development in organizational practice.The good thing is if the company gets non-financial benefits from SRI, because in that case the investors would not care so much about the money, financial profit, which they can get from these investments. Otherwise the problems with personal or societal values can arise. The question needed to answer is whether the stakeholders care about the values mentioned aboveUnfortunately, social disclosure and social performance are the subjects shareholders care about just in how they affect the financial performance. The ethical positions of organizations, takes just a little part of the things shareholders cares about. The ethical norms which characterize a company are fundamental to any green investment analysis. They include the integrity of the vision and leadership of top management, and a company’s openness and accountability to its employees and to the outside world. Companies economic behaviour can be seen in the works it done. The increase in SRI is one of the factors which can determine and reveal whether the company has positive or negative behaviour in investing. Heinkel et al. (2001) suggests looking if company investors are green or neutral investors and whether they have a clean or a polluting technology. The other problem is that the company which is pursuing social and environmental goals can suffer in competitive market. So, both of the profits need to be balanced. SRI must be an investment where part of the returns is donated to good causes.Corporate governance have to reflect the positive screening of the company, it is preferred that company would be focused on social welfare in addition to value maximization. Conclusion AVIVA company is one of these companies who cares about their customers, employers and tries to be the right example for everyone in reporting, activities related with environment, behavior which can be called representative for other organizations in successful development. Being the leading organization in Corporate reporting this company seeks to concentrate to positive values and behavior. AVIVA company makes a lot of good works in global warming issue, it is active inside and outside the organization, tries to â€Å"infect† the other organizations and people by environmentally friendly behavior and the results is already seen. Of course, only positive and valuable works showed in Aviva’s Corporate reporting makes human doubts about good faith of this company, but otherwise by having a good name this company gain confidence of customers, shows a good example for other insurers and of course the same logics asks a question why such company would harm and disparage it s reputationSo, it can be said that this company is the one who understands that it is responsible to control and master the ‘right to knowledge and participation’ which civil society is demanding for. Bibliography Books: Dave Owen ‘Green Reporting: Accountancy and the challenge of the nineties’ Chapman Hall 1992 Gray, R., Owen, D. and Adams, C., Accounting and accountability: Changes and challenges in corporate social and environmental reporting, London: Prentice Hall Europe, 1996 John Houghton ‘Global Warming : the complete briefing ’ 2nd edition, Cambridge University P., 1994 Jose Allouche, Corporate Social Responsibility Volume 1 Concepts, Accountability and Reporting, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006 Rob Gray, Dave Owen, Keith Maunders Corporate Social Reporting: Accounting and accountability 1987 Rob Gray, Jan Bebbington Accounting for the environment 2nd edition, Rob Gray with Jan Bebbington 2001 Journal articles: Anne Ellerup Nielsen, Christa Thomsen ‘Reporting CSR – what and how to say it?’ 2007 Aarhus School of Business, Denmark Volume: 12 Issue:1 pp. 25-40 Ainscough, T., Hill, R.P., Shank, T. Manullang, D. 2007, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility and Socially Responsible Investing: A Global Perspective’, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 165-174. Experts who put a premium on expecting the worst and working out what it costs NON-FINANCIAL RISK: Mike Scott looks at the mechanisms employed by the insurance industry to minimise the impact of risk on its balance sheet: SURVEYS EDITION 2007, , London (UK). Garry Booth, ‘Climate change: Talk needs to turn into action’, 2008 Reactions. Janet M Epps and Fiona L Solomon, ‘Adding Social Value Through Accountability in Mineral Development’ 2000 The AusIMM Annual Conference, Sydney, [online]. Available from: http://www.minerals.csiro.au/sd/CSIRO_Paper_Accountability.htm [accessed 20/03/11] Jean Raar ‘Reported social and environmental taxonomies: a longer-term glimpse’ 2007 Deakin University, Burwood, Australia Volume: 22 Issue: 8 pp. 840-860 McGuire, D. Garavan, T.N., ‘Human Resource Development and Society: Human Resource Development’s Role in Embedding Corporate Social Responsibility, Sustainability, and Ethics in Organizations’, 2010, vol. 12, no. 5, Advances in Developing Human Resources, pp. 487-507 Ter Horst, J., Zhang, C. Renneboog, L. 2008, ‘Socially responsible investments: Institutional aspects, performance, and investor behavior’, Journal of Banking Finance, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1723-1742. Reports and On-line sources: Aviva plc Annual Report and Accounts 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006 and 2005 [online]. Available from: http://www.aviva.com/corporate-responsibility/reports/?category=All [accessed 01/03/11] Accounting for Sustainability. [online]. Available from: http://www.accountingforsustainability.org/output/Page136.asp [accessed 01/03/11] Climate care. Treadle pumps in India. [online]. Available from: http://www.jpmorganclimatecare.com/projects/countries/treadle-india/ [accessed 14/03/11] Climate friendly Hebei Kangbao Wind Project Project Profile [online]. Available from: https://climatefriendly.com/projects [accessed 20/03/11] International Federation of Accountants [online] Available from: http://www.ifac.org/ [accessed 13/04/11] Insurance company AVIVA web page [online]. Available from: http://www.aviva.co.uk/ [accessed 20/02/11] Going green [online]. Available from: http://www.lowcarbonconcrete.ie/documents/ScanofarticleJan2009-smallOCR.pdf [accessed 20/03/11] Practical Action. Biogas: power from cow dung. [online]. Available from: http://practicalaction.org/biogas [accessed 14/03/11] Special English development report. ‘The Importance of a Simple Water Pump’[online]. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A36hUKNPy-Q [accessed 20/02/11] How to cite Social and environmental accounting case study of AVIVA and CSR, Free Case study samples

Friday, December 6, 2019

The Logical Form of Data

Question: Describe the decision process for determining the logical form of data collection and how data are stored once the data are collected, Assess the purpose of information storage systems. Create a taxonomy based on a concept (e.g., decision-making) describing the benefits of various types of databases (e.g., spatial, object-relational, extended relational, bio-diversity [taxonomic], multimedia), optical storages, and data warehouses (e.g., web-enabled, data marts) and the purpose of the data stored. Conclude how organizational leaders might deploy your model to make effective business decisions. Answer: Data Collection and Data Storage Data collection and management is a strategic approach to gathering the data and information from the relevant source and storing those data in an appropriate and useful manner. The collection of data begins after a research problem is defined. This defined an ongoing systematic collection; analysis and interpretation of data are for future use (Freeman, 2010). Data collected in a systematic manner and then stored in appropriate manner helps in searching of data in future. That means if any information needed in future then one can directly refer to the collected data for quick search, this helps in saving a lot of time of persons, and they can easily focus on their other job. There are two types of data Primary and Secondary data. Data collected for the first time is Primary data, and data collected by someone or already passed is secondary data. Tough for collecting these data there is need for take correct decision such as decision of collecting the data from the correct and appro priate source, data collected is relevant or not, unnecessarily collection of a lot of data, attention to policy and procedure of gathering data etc. This decision-making process for the collection of data is very important (Rudolph, 2014). There a various method employed for collection of data. Some of them are mentioned below: Direct Observations After the collection of data the second concern is storage of data. Data collection is not only to how and what is collected but also how to store data.After collecting the data those data, must be stored securely but also made easily available for analysis. Basic data processing principles should followed for management of data. Original raw data should be stored in the databases. Data collection systems should be integrated to the data management systems. An adequate personnel and financial resources are needed to maintain, make regular archives protect the data. To ensure the confidentiality and integrity access must need to be controlled. Earlier to store the collected data traditional methods were used but today is the time of electronic data storage (Kew, 2010). This storage format is easily adaptable to evolving computers. Some other considerations for storing the data electronically such as: Low cost Fast access to data Capability to archive the data A backup system In above discussion data collection and storing the collected data is discussed in details that clarify the types, method of data collection, and the importance of storing the data securely. Information Storage Systems Computes are highly efficient for storing the managing the data. Computers have the capability to collate the vast amount of data and information. With the widespread use of databases, spreadsheets, emails, transfer of data electronically have increased the speed as well as the volume of storing the data. These techniques also help in turning the individuals bits of data into useful information for others. Information storage media also can be hardware that is used to accumulate the huge amount of data physically. These storage devices come mainly in three forms: optic, solid state and magnetic. Floppy disks, tapes and hard drives are the form of magnetic storage systems (McCool and St. Amant, 2009). Optical devices came in forms of flat circular discs and made of very strong plastic. Solid state storage systems are mainly available in three forms SSD (solid- state-drives), SSC (solid- state- cards) and SSM (solid- state- modules). These devices are used for the storage of large amou nt data for a long period sometimes forever. The software devices are economical and easy to carry anywhere along with us. Maintenance of these devices is also easy. The use of e-mails, spreadsheets, databases are also easy to access and manage from anywhere. Taxonomy Describing the Benefits of Databases A strategic potential of the Information System is now well recognized. The five decision-making processesnamely, planned, provincial, incremental, fluid, and politicalseem quite distinct, in terms of the activities involved and the influences encountered, as well as the conditions under which they are used. A database is created to accumulate information there are several advantages of databases systems such as enhanced data sharing, improved data security, better data integration, data inconsistency is less, improved data access, Improved decision making, increased end- user productivity, etc. Decision making is better because of improved access to data and better management of data (Larson, 1982). It is a comprehensive data to promote the timeliness, accuracy and validity of data providing a framework to facilitate data quality initiatives. An object- relational Database system is database extends the relational database management systems. In this databases attributes of tuples to have complex types including the non- atomic values. In the schemas of the object, classes and inheritance are supported directly in schemas of database and query language. Relational foundations are preserved in this database model. Spatial Database Management System allows spatial data types in the model as well as in query language. Spatial indexing is important and mandatory (Sunil, Seetha and Vinotha, 2012). This type of database also supports connected objects from different classes are also supported by this type of database through some spatial relationships. Extended Relational Database Systems: Extended relational databases are widely used for designing of database tools. E-R model of database designing is used for storage and processing. It is usually converted into the relational model (DATABASE Editorial Board 2009, 2009). This model describes the relation between two entities more broadly. This model is extended form of relational database. Bio- Diversity Database model is created to accumulate the information related to biological taxa. Taxonomic database systems are the automated construction of biological checklists. These databases are used to keep the track of biological information. This information stored in the taxonomic database can be accessed and used by any medical representatives or students, researchers or by anyone for the research purpose or to analyze the information and results provided (Wilde, 2010). Multimedia Database is the storage of multimedia data such as text, audio, video, images, animations, graphics, etc. This database is the combination of different media. With the rapid increase in digital information today the multimedia databases are used. This database is different from the traditional database management systems. Multimedia database is composed of complex data. Optical Storage is the electronic medium for storing the data. In optical storage, the data can be stored by using the low power laser beams. Digital data are encoded in the form of optical data with the help of laser beams. It provides a huge storage capacity. With the development of WORM, optical disks are now erasable but earlier it was not available. Data Warehouses are in support of decision- making process, non- volatile, time invariant, and subject oriented relational database designed for query and analysis. It does not support the transaction processing. Use of Database for making Effective Business Decisions A direct and positive impact has been made by the Database Management System (IT) on decision- making.Firms have found applications of Database Management System for their enterprise decision making necessities. To get a fruitful use of resources is expected from any IT system (McDougall, 2014). There are various examples which show the contribution of Database Management System in enhancing Decision- making in the corporate field (Birkinshaw and Jenkins, 2010). A direct and positive impact has been made by the Database Management System on decision making.Firms have found applications of database management system for their enterprise decision- making necessities. To get a fruitful use of resources is expected from any Database Management System (DATABASE Editorial Board 2009, 2009). Some points are mentioned below which help in improving decision- making for leaders in business: Enhanced data sharing Improved data security Better data integration Data inconsistency is less Improved data access Improved decision making Increased end- user productivity References: Birkinshaw, J., Jenkins, H. (2010). MAKING BETTER RISK MANAGEMENT DECISIONS.Business Strategy Review,21(4), 41-45. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8616.2010.00704.x DATABASE Editorial Board 2009. (2009).Database,2009(0), bap023-bap023. doi:10.1093/database/bap023 Freeman, R. (2010). Transplant Data Collection: You Get What You Pay for.American Journal Of Transplantation,10(7), 1503-1504. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2010.03144.x Kew, S. (2010). Text messaging: an innovative method of data collection in medical research.BMC Research Notes,3(1), 342. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-342 Larson, J. (1982).Database management system anatomy. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books. McCool, M., St. Amant, K. (2009). Field dependence and classification: Implications for global information systems.J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci.,60(6), 1258-1266. doi:10.1002/asi.21050 McDougall, A. (2014). Making the right business decisions.BDJ Team,1, 14077. doi:10.1038/bdjteam.2014.77 Rudolph, T. (2014). Big Data Chancen und Gefahren.Mark Rev St. Gallen,31(1), 1-1. doi:10.1365/s11621-014-0313-7 Sunil, C., Seetha, J., Vinotha, S. (2012). Security Implications of Distributed Database Management System Models.International Journal Of Soft Computing And Software Engineering [JSCSE],2(11), 20-28. doi:10.7321/jscse.v2.n11.3 Wilde, M. (2010). Local Journal Utilization Report: Supporting Data for Collection Decisions.Collection Management,35(2), 102-107. doi:10.1080/01462671003615058

Monday, November 25, 2019

The History of Video Recorders and Television

The History of Video Recorders and Television Charles Ginsburg led the research team at Ampex Corporation in developing one of the first practical videotape recorders or VTRs in 1951. It captured live images from television cameras by converting the information into electrical impulses and saving the information on magnetic tape. By 1956, VTR technology was perfected and in common use by the television industry. But Ginsburg wasn’t done yet. He led the Ampex research team in developing a new machine that could run the tape at a much slower rate because the recording heads rotated at high speed. This allowed the necessary high-frequency response. He became known as the father of the video cassette recorder.†Ã‚  Ampex sold the first VTR for $50,000 in 1956, and the first VCassetteRs or VCRs were sold by Sony in 1971. The Early Days of Video Recording Film was initially the only medium available for recording television programs magnetic tape was considered, and it was already being used for sound, but the greater quantity of information carried by the television signal demanded new studies. A number of American companies began investigating this problem during the 1950s.   Tape Recording Technology Audio and video magnetic recording have had a greater impact on broadcasting than any other development since the invention of radio/TV transmission itself. Videotape in a large cassette format was  introduced by both JVC and Panasonic around 1976. This was the most popular format for home use and for video store rentals for many years until it was replaced by CDs and DVDs. VHS stands for Video Home System. The First Television Cameras American engineer, scientist and inventor Philo Taylor Farnsworth devised the television camera in the 1920s, although he would later declare that theres nothing on it worthwhile. It was an â€Å"image dissector† that converted a captured imagine into an electrical signal. Farnsworth was born in 1906 on Indian Creek in Beaver County, Utah.  His parents expected him to become a concert violinist but his interests drew him to experiments with electricity. He built an electric motor and produced the first electric washing machine his family ever owned at the age of 12. He then went on to attend Brigham Young University where he researched television picture transmission. Farnsworth had already conceived of his idea for television while in high school, and he cofounded Crocker Research Laboratories in 1926 which he later renamed Farnsworth Television, Inc. He then changed the name again to Farnsworth Radio and Television Corporation in 1938. Farnsworth was the first inventor to transmit a television image comprised of 60 horizontal lines in 1927. He was only 21 years old. The image was a dollar sign. One of the keys to his success was the development of the  dissector tube that essentially translated images into electrons that could be transmitted to a TV. He filed for his first television patent in 1927. He had already won an earlier patent for his image dissection tube, but he lost later patent battles to RCA, which owned the rights to many of inventor  Vladimir Zworkyin’s  TV patents. Farnsworth went on to invent over 165 different devices. He held over 300 patents by the end of his career, including a number of significant television patents although he was not a fan of what his discoveries had wrought. His final years were spent battling depression and alcohol. He died on March 11, 1971, in Salt Lake City, Utah. Digital Photography and Video Stills Digital camera technology is directly related to and evolved from the same technology that once recorded  television  images. Both television/video cameras and digital cameras use a CCD or charged coupled device to sense light color and intensity. A still video or digital camera called the Sony Mavica single-lens reflex was first demonstrated in 1981. It used a fast-rotating magnetic disc that was two inches in diameter and could record up to 50 images formed in a solid-state device inside the camera. The images were played back through a television receiver or monitor, or they could be printed out. Advancements in Digital Technology   NASA converted from using analog to digital signals with their space probes to map the surface of the moon in the 1960s, sending digital images back to earth. Computer technology was also advancing at this time and NASA used computers to enhance the images that the space probes were sending.  Digital imaging had another government use at the time – in spy satellites. Government use of digital technology helped advance the science of digital imaging, and the private sector also made significant contributions. Texas Instruments patented a filmless electronic camera in 1972, the first to do so. Sony released the Sony Mavica electronic still camera in August 1981, the first commercial electronic camera. Images were recorded onto a mini disc and placed into a video reader that was connected to a television monitor or color printer. The early Mavica cannot be considered a true digital camera, however, even though it started the digital camera revolution. It was a video camera that took video freeze-frames. The First Digital Cameras   Since the mid-1970s, Kodak has invented several solid-state image sensors that convert  light to digital pictures for professional and home consumer use. Kodak scientists invented the worlds first megapixel sensor in 1986, capable of recording 1.4 million pixels that could produce a 5 x 7-inch digital photo-quality print. Kodak released seven products for recording, storing, manipulating, transmitting and printing electronic still video images in 1987, and in 1990, the company developed the Photo CD system and proposed the first worldwide standard for defining color in the digital environment of computers and computer peripherals. Kodak released the first professional digital camera system (DCS), aimed at photojournalists in 1991, a Nikon F-3 camera equipped with a 1.3-megapixel sensor. The first digital cameras for the consumer  market that would work with a home computer via a serial cable were the Apple QuickTake camera in 1994, the Kodak DC40 camera in 1995, the Casio QV-11 also in 1995, and Sonys Cyber-Shot Digital Still Camera in 1996. Kodak entered into an aggressive co-marketing campaign to promote its DC40 and to help introduce the idea of digital photography to the public. Kinkos and Microsoft both collaborated with Kodak to create digital image-making software workstations and kiosks which allowed customers to produce photo CD discs and add digital images to documents. IBM collaborated with Kodak in making an Internet-based network image exchange. Hewlett-Packard was the first company to make color inkjet printers that complemented the new digital camera images. The marketing worked and now digital cameras are everywhere.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Industrial Revolution as a Trigger of Great Britain's Growth Research Paper

Industrial Revolution as a Trigger of Great Britain's Growth - Research Paper Example The improved military capability of Britain resulted in dispersed troops searching for cover. This scattering and its impact on command power were counteracted by the invention of the telegraph. With this improvement in British armed forces came an increase in the claim for order. Hence, the transformation in the industrial power of Britain influenced their military skills. Strategies and shrewdness became less significant than productivity and supply capacity. This also relates to the available combatant population as, increasingly, recruits came to be viewed as quantities much like ammunition replacement and bullet consumption. The bigger the military force, normally coming from a bigger population base, the higher the number of fatalities it would be capable of maintaining, enlarging the odds of victory. Â   Military production was an industry that rewarded innovation. In other major industries, traditional entrepreneurs were hesitant to invest in novel process technology. The government invested in the military industry and was indifferent with the production technology provided that the goods were finished and delivered on time. Numerous technological improvements, such as iron production, the use of machine implements, and conveyer belts, were initiated through military manufacturing. The technology built for the military industry then spread out into the civilian economic sector. And since it was at the time a verified technology patron who was usually vigilant were eager to invest into these enterprises which rather than dispensing iron to produce guns now transformed iron ore into pots and stoves.Iron manufacturing received special treatment from the military industry; appropriate coverage necessitates that one monitors the military uses to which iron was placed. This is particula rly significant since the yield of the iron industry in the eighteenth century went for fairly diverse uses than those related to the modern military industry.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The Legacy of the Holocaust Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 5

The Legacy of the Holocaust - Essay Example The Holocaust damaged society. The consequence of the Jewish Holocaust had a great effect on society in Germany and the entire world. This devastating murder of the Jewish people in Germany left thousands in mental and physical pain, and affect current society in a negative manner. It is estimated that more than ten million people were killed by the authoritarian Nazi regime under the leadership of Hitler (Haran 25). The effects of Holocaust continue to haunt those people who were exposed to it. For instance, as children and other survivors started aging the terrifying past returns to their mind. In turn, insecurities start to control their physiologic mind. It is also significant to note that the holocaust did not only affect the survivors and those who died but it affected the entire world. For instance, the holocaust provides an example of how dictatorship and prejudice in our society can be costly or detrimental (Haran 36-39). Following liberation, many survivors, especially of J ewish ancestry, feared to go back to the former homes due to anti-Semitism that existed in some parts of Europe and the trauma they had experienced in the concentration camps. Some survivors who returned to their homes feared for their security. For instance, in Poland, the presence of pogroms or violent anti-Jewish protests in towns like Kielce in 1946 made the Jewish fearful to return home (Haran 47). The holocaust and its effects left million of Jewish and non-Jewish refugees who lost their families and property. They experienced relentless anti-Semitism in their home nations. This made many people not ready to return to their homes. Most displaced Jewish preferred to settle in Palestine.

Monday, November 18, 2019

Testing to Improve Educational Improvements Research Paper

Testing to Improve Educational Improvements - Research Paper Example This project stresses that an educational standard is a means of improving school quality, by educating the need of effectiveness, and student data. By mandating the importance of educational values in public schools, these include states; policy makers’ not forgetting elected officials have the ability to increase the chance that students will obtain a minimum or set body of skills and information throughout their public-school education. Educational standardized achievement tests to determine learning quality as measuring high temperature with a tablespoon. Standardized success tests have a special measurement undertaking other than showing how good a school educational system is. Standardized tests should, therefore, be used to regulate the relative interpretations they were proposed to provide. Therefore, they should not be used to judge the quality of education. By looking at the significant reasons considered to be invalid in order to base inferences about the quality of education on standardized achievement test. This paper makes a conclusion that assessment aids in enhancing education and at the same time helps in recognizing how students use their knowledge in understanding and discovering. It also includes helping in developing and integrating new information by understanding the skills gained. It aids teachers and scholars to be acquainted with current understanding for future education. Thus educational standards are important in the assessment of the education process.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Influence Of Media On The Public Behavior Sociology Essay

Influence Of Media On The Public Behavior Sociology Essay This research paper analyses the impact of Bollywood movies and generated ideas of romance and love marriage within middle and upper-middle class urban Pakistani marriages. It especially focuses on the influence of this on the acceptability of love marriages. It looks at selected samples of youngsters falling in the age group 17-29 and parents. Exceptions looked at are those falling outside the age group who had love marriages. The similarity of Indian and Pakistani mindset is scrutinized with respect to love marriages. It explores the issue of unacceptability of love marriages in Pakistan and the gradual changing trend. The vital role played by fantasy within Indian marriages is explored and the focal point is commercial Hindi films watched by the middle class of Karachi which fall within the genre of melodrama. Love marriages in bollywood are looked in depth. Finally the paper aims at exploring the factors responsible for the change in attitudes towards marriage and analysis of whe ther Bollywood movies influence is one of those factors which has considerably influenced the mindsets towards acceptance of love marriages in Pakistan. Research Question Have Bollywood movies influenced the increased acceptance of love marriages amongst the middle class of Karachi? Research Hypothesis Based on a review of literature as noted later in this proposal, there is one major hypothesis area that will guide the analysis of data i.e. Bollywood movies have influenced the increased acceptance of love marriages amongst the middle class of Karachi. Secondary Research Influence of Media on the public behavior How Does the Media Influence the Way People Behave? The influence of media on public behavior is becoming more and more significant as time is passing. With the development and advancement of new technology, it is possible to distribute media content pervasively with minimal costs. Because of a high demand and supply of media content, producers engage in competitive behavior and come up with new ways to catch attention of consumers. The type of content free media shows is solely dependent on the demand for media content. However, numerous research studies on the topic have revealed that media content can shape our thoughts and alter our behavior in a number of ways. The following part of the literature review will focus on the effects of media on the behavior and perception of the general population. Furthermore, a critical analysis of the impact of media on the conception of love marriages will be discussed with reference to research studies. Watching media content takes us into a different world or more specifically, a different level of consciousness. Media content not only arouses our cognitive neurons, but also changes our behavior if exposed frequently. The effect of media is not stopped even after exposure to media content is removed; instead it causes a lingering effect by initiating a gradual thought process that can lead to behavioral changes in many cases. A good example of behavioral manipulation caused by media content is the impact of action films on children. Research on television shows, movies, music and video games which contain violent behavior shows unequivocal connection between media violence and violent behavior in both short and long term (Anderson, et al., 2003). Empirical evidence shows children emulate violent behavior portrayed by the heroes in the movies thinking that they would be able to achieve their desired outcome though violent behavior just like hero tends to be victorious in the end of the movie. Children tend to adopt some behavioral aspects from media content over a long period of time. Moreover, some behavioral changes might change throughout the whole population as children adopt those behaviors as adults, practice those behaviors over others and leave a mark on the future generations. This is the reason why media is able to change some social norms that existed previously and why some nations are afraid o f cultural imperialism through media invasion. Media consumers, whether they know it or not, are affected by what they watch and what they see over a long period of time will still shape what they perceive as normal, thanks to oft-repeated themes and images in the land of movie love (Hefner, 2011). And while movies are not intended or expected to be entirely realistic, scholars of communication theorize that exposure to media like romantic comedies, especially for young people, can shape expectations about both romance and marriage, shifting adolescent perceptions about what love is like, and how to show it (McLanahan, 2008). Researchers followed 329 subjects over 15 years. They found that those who as children were exposed to violent TV shows were much more likely to later be convicted of crime. Researchers said that, Media violence can affect any child from any family, regardless of social class or parenting (Dispenza, 2011). All our actions are based on what we learn and what we know, and we as human beings learn by seeing and imitating. Following this trend of thought we can infer that as we see from movies, we tend to act accordingly, by the means of learning and practicing. Marriages When Frank Sinatra sang about love and marriage going together like a horse and carriage, he did not consider that to a great extent the cart is put before the ox. Marriages are arranged by parents in China, India and Indonesia three countries with 40% of the worlds population plus others that practice Buddhism, Islam and Hinduism. Pakistan is one such country where arranged marriages are practiced and dating is not permissible. Couples might get a 15-minute meeting followed in a few months by a wedding. But sparks are flying, and love marriages are breaking out in India, the worlds largest democracy, with 1.1 billion people.  CEO Raju Reddy of Sierra Atlantic in India, himself in an arranged marriage to childhood friend Neeraja, was surprised to learn at the Sierra Atlantic holiday party in December that about a dozen love marriages have germinated in recent years at the 13-year-old company. The Indian government does not differentiate in its marriage statistics. But young Indians interviewed say their observations suggest that 10% to 20% of their friends are having love marriages, and expert Poonam Barua, director of the Conference Boards India Operations, says that is probably true in most of Indias cities. Bollywood movies such as  Salaam Namaste  are based on the old formula of boy meeting girl and eventually fall in love. It will be decades, if ever, before love marriages dominate worldwide. In India, the trend is specific to the middle class of 350 million, not to the 70% of the country that remains rural. But the trend is undeniable, says Barua, whose niece began a love marriage on Feb. 2 with an Indian working for Citibank. Chambravalli and Mishra say if they have children, they also will be allowed to search for true love. In the meantime, Mom and Dad will be on the lookout. Plan A and Plan B, Mishra says. It seems like the neighbouring country Pakistan has been much influenced with this breakout of love marriages too. Similarity of Indian and Pakistani Mindset This section of the literature review focuses on how the Pakistani society and its mindset is similar to that of India which has led us to use most of our secondary research with regard to the Indian population. The fact that India and Pakistan have shared the same history coupled with the reality that both nations stand next to each other in the topographical location of the world map alone can point out how similar the thinking of these nations can be at one point in time and this section specifically focuses on the aspects through which the mindsets of the populations of these two nations can be hold similar. Originally, Pakistan and India have been a part of the same Indus civilization which has led them to having similar experiences and influences across decades. Before separation, Pakistan and India shared the same goal of freedom against the colonial rule and they were united in their fight against the British. Because of the division, a multitude of issues occurred regarding the distribution of power and dominance over the new nations and these resulted in frustration which turned the countries bitter towards each other. (India and Pakistan historic conflict and future outlooks, 2003). India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, all comprised the sub-continent at that time and the people residing in Hindustan lived together except the religious and cultural differences that had led to extremely brutal reactions and vast bloodshed at times, but this is only one side of the story the other side sticks to the fact that before the arrival of east India company in 1600 a mental asylum was created which reflects the sense of hospitability among the population there to take care of the mentally ill people as well as their society (S Sharma, 10/1984 ). This sense of love and affection is still present in both Pakistani and Indian community when residents of both countries visit the one another  [i]  . Furthermore, the established fact that the people of Pakistan came from the subcontinent makes it likely that the mind set of both the nations is parallel. Politically, both the countries have more or less a similar government structure consisting of the head of the country as the President, followed by the head of the government known as the prime minister and elected ministers who are answerable to the prime ministers. Despite the coups and political violations in both the countries, they manage to hold democratic elections. Due to all the similarities in their political framework, working alongside each other would be a lot less of a hassle as there are no starkly alien political systems to contend with. The economic structures of both the countries also hold a lot of similarities. The rates of unemployment and inflation are around 6% in both the countries. Indias 63% of workforce is concentrated mainly in the production primary goods and is self sufficient in food grains and it also produces cotton, tea, sugarcane, tobacco for export. Similarly, Pakistan also has more than 50% of its population involved in agriculture and the rates of labor involved in secondary and tertiary activities in both the countries are also similar which indicate high success rates of free trade agreements if both the countries agree for it.  [1]   As per the similarities among their cities, the two extreme ends of poverty and wealth in the city of Bombay bear a strange resemblance to that of the two extremes of living standards in Karachi. Bombay, like Karachi, is an industrial port city, plagued by over population, with colonial architecture dominating certain parts of town, and only the distance of 500 miles separating the two cities. The affinity between the two cities is not confined to the infrastructure and the living habitat, but even the afternoon breeze racing in from the sea at the verandah of the Bombay Gymkhana, is a de ja vu of the experience at the Karachi Gymkhana. Focusing on the differences between Bombay and Karachi, the most attention drawing aspect is the absence of statues in Karachi. We have monuments of fountains and swords and mountaintops in the middle of a landslide depicting Pakistans first successful nuclear test in 1998 but unlike Bombay, we have no statues of people. And then there is the city of Madras, which is a city that belongs clearly to the same region as Karachi and that is where their similarities end. The realization of being present in Southern India when in Madras is inevitable at all times, as Pakistanis, our association is stronger with the Northern India. For the students (of Stella Maris College), when asked which South Asian country they most strongly associated with, responded unanimously as Pakistan in complete contradiction to anyones expectations. When enquired as to why the students correlate with Pakistan, they replied that Pakistan had been a part of India. And when asked if they felt the same affinity towards Bangladesh, they declined profusely. (India and Pakistan historic conflict and future outlooks, 2003) To conclude, the mindset of both the nations can be attributed to be similar because of the sole reason that their forefathers have spent years together which has made their traditions, political systems, economic stances as being similar. It is the matter of self interest which has made the two countries apart like Kashmir issue is one where a conflict of interest between both the nations is seen. Apart from that religion has always been a major source of division and this is one subject where definitely no consensus can be reached as everybody has a right to religion. Models of Marriage Marriages can be put in four categories in Pakistan. There are: Partially Arranged Marriages Partially Love Marriages Totally Arranged Marriages Totally Love Marriages Totally arranged marriages and totally love marriages are two extreme forms of marriages and between these two extremes are Partially arranged and partially love marriages in which parents may take their selection and give their children the option to accept or reject their choice. Broadly these can fall under the two types of marriages (in India and Pakistan): Arranged and Love, as explained by Kavita Ramdya in her book Bollywood Weddings. These models are diametrically opposed. Love marriage will often involve a whimsical and incidental meeting followed by months and often years of dating. The arranged marriage excludes dating altogether and rarely allows for more than one meeting before the wedding day. When the boy and girl, words used to describe prospective marriage candidates despite their age, profession, or education, meet for the  ¬Ã‚ rst time, it is usually in a highly-regulated environment where both sets of parents sit in the same room accompanied by supportive extend ed family members. A wedding follows shortly thereafter, making it the second time the couple is allowed to see each other and after which the husband and wife embark on years of dating or getting to know one another without the nagging possibility of rejection. In the middle class, often family members stay on a lookout finding a suitable match, or a number of suitable matches. Then, the families meet to see if things work out. Long before this happens, though, the young men and women are carefully vetted for likes and dislikes, traits in common, complementary characteristics, and any other information that can be discovered and deemed relevant. Often, the process is much more informal, with the families in the community already knowing much about each other, and having already decided what could be potentially good pairings, and which may well be disastrous. The two opposed models of marriage are negotiated by the present generation as observed by Kavita Ramdya. Her examination led her to discover a middle path, which she called arranged meetings. Arranged meetings is an already negotiated and well-established third model for marrying. The second generation uses this method to  ¬Ã‚ lter out prospective marital candidates who do not have the right ethnic, religious, linguistic, and regional traits desired by their parents. In this way, neither arranged nor love marriage are excluded and the needs and desires of both generations are respected. The  ¬Ã‚ rst generation is still involved in  ¬Ã‚ nding a suitable partner for their child, whether through introductions by family and friends, or placing an ad on-line or in a newspaper. Additionally, candidates who do not come from the same religious sect, speak the desired dialect are cast away before a set of eligible prospects are considered. (Ramdya) Prevalence of Arranged Marriages Family forms the building block of a society. Human beings in turn follow the standards and norms set by the society to lead a perfect life. But everything is prone to change and so are the values and standards set by a society. In the same way, the ways of getting married are changing at a noticeable but slow pace. East is known for its traditions. Many countries in the East have been practicing arranged marriages since long. It is a known fact that love marriages are more common in the west than in the eastern countries. In Pakistan, marriages are most of the time arranged by family members. The reason is that the Pakistani society preserves family continuity through arranged marriages. collectivist societies like Pakistan prefer group decision over an individual one so marriages are a family affair rather than an individual one, and children are brought up to expect arranged marriages. It is seen that children can have veto power in few families but normally it is expected that the parents and other family members should commence and settle on the matter. In this society, marriage is not merely based on love relationships but family economics and social needs play a great role. Changing Trend of Marriages A couple of decades ago arranged marriage was the only known way to get married. But today it is not so. We see many Pakistani girls  and guys marrying by their own choice instead of that of their family. Love marriages are becoming more and more acceptable. Most of the marriages are arranged in Pakistan but some of the marriages are also based on love. Love marriages have been taking place in Pakistan in the last few years with the influx of western cultures and invasion of electronic media. Due to family obligations the trends of compromising and striving to sustain relationships have become the hallmark of eastern culture. However, this fact could not be denied that these trends are eroding day by day. People realize that the traditional system of totally arranged marriages needs to be adjusted. Partially arranged and partially love marriages are supported by the state religion. Today the exposure to various stimuli through the media has increased awareness. The improved education system could also be held responsible for this change. As compared to the previous years, the literacy rate among the Pakistani Women has increased by leaps and bounds over the past couple of decades. Education gives exposure and a sense of enlightenment. Women have become opinionated and smart. Many young women are given the right to exercise their choice in choosing a partner and the family members accept and support their decision. Dating agencies are emerging and proclaiming that although compatible partners inclined to marriage cant be picked off a supermarket shelf, they can be found on a website. Most work on the false assertion that a good profile and an insignificant  financial investment  is the only obstacle standing between you and the love of your life. If they are to be believed, a couple of cheesy emails can determine your compatibility. In a typical electronic dating set-up, the average person role plays in a desperate bid to make an impression.   It seems that love marriages are trending but we cannot deny the fact that the practice of an arranged marriage still heavily prevails in our society. Many times, the young individuals prefer not to take the decision themselves and they rely upon the family to find the best match for them. Gender Interaction The gender interactions part focuses on the evolving nature of interactions between male and female students and the resultant effect of this change on their marriage choices. Title: Student Attitude toward Mate selection in a Muslim Society: Pakistan Author: Henry Korson Journal: (Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 31, No. 1 (Feb., 1969), pp. 153-165) The study was conducted on 765 participants in two universities of Pakistan (University of Karachi and University of Punjab) and provides a treasure trove of vital insights into how marriage was viewed by students in urban Pakistan 40 years ago. The study results showed that atleast a quarter of respondents believed that the choice of life-partner should be left to them, while another quarter wanted their parents to consult them before making the final decision. This showed that over 50% of the respondents in that era wanted to have a say in the final decision of their life-partner. Another question that was asked was if the respondents would make a completely independent choice when it comes to marriage to which only 3.8% respondents replied positively. 17.1% female respondents from Karachi and 16.7% female respondents from Lahore also believed that their parents would arrange their marriage without consulting them. This is in contrast to the 45% female respondents from Karachi and 52% female respondents from Lahore who said their families will accept their opinions on the life-partner. Keeping in mind that these are graduate students from the 1960s when education for women was still at a nascent stage in Pakistan, they can only be classified as a minority. The women belonged to wealthy, forward-thinking families who were amongst the first to educate their daughters and thus had a progressive mindset. They were open to the idea of their daughters having a say in their own marriage decision but were not yet willing to accept their daughters to have complete cont rol over the decision. This is reflected by the fact that only 9.8% of female students from Karachi and 6.3% of female students from Lahore believed that their families would accept their decision of marriage if it was their own personal initiative. One of the most interesting statistic provided by this study revealed that upto 30% of the sample believed that meeting ones spouse before marriage was unnecessary. Females from Karachi (44%) and Lahore (47%) showed a great liking to this option thus showing confidence in their parents ability to choose the right spouse for them. This mindset is unthinkable amongst most contemporary university students of Karachi and Lahore who are more independent compared to their counterparts of yesteryears. The combination of higher education, globalization and media local, Bollywood and western has resulted in a mindset where the choice of life partner is no more the sole domain of the individuals parents. Moreover, the need to meet the prospective spouse whether alone, with mutual friends or with family has become paramount before the final decision is made. Students today believe that couples should have understanding and this can only be gauged if there is some level of interaction before the marriage. The above mentioned statistic was further reinforced when the students were asked about the optimum length of time for knowing ones future spouse before marriage. Although a quarter of the respondents did say that knowing ones future spouse for about 6 months is necessary, the majority of these respondents were male. 34.5% of female respondents from Karachi and 27.1% of female respondents from Lahore were of the view that there was no need to know ones spouse before marriage again indicating confidence in their parents ability to choose a spouse who was appropriate for them. The conclusions that Korson derives are insightful and can be used to explain todays phenomena of how traditional arranged marriages are wearing away. Korson says that because most families live in extended households, the presence of senior members of the family prevent any young student from initiating any change which runs counter to the belief systems held by the senior members. Uncles, aunts, grand-parents ensure that the parents conservative view is supported and reinforced within the family. This is primarily because of the belief that if one person is given leeway in deciding their marriage decision, others in the family will follow suit, thus creating disorder and depriving the senior members of their authority. Korson further states that male respondents showed greater self-assurance and liberality in their responses whereas majority of females favoured conservative options. This is probably because of both males and females already understanding their own personal situations. He believed their answers on what they believed will happen with them with respect to marriage were based on the experience of someone close (sibling, cousin, friend) who had already been married and the respondents belief that their marriage will be conducted in the same manner because they belonged to the same caste, class or family. The last and most notable finding that Korson reveals is that the Pakistani university system is based on Western education and that in the race to achieving higher education (and resultant higher social standing), people are bound to be in touch with Western values and principles and to be influenced by them. The mindset of collectivism that is the root of traditional arranged marriages where it is popularly said that families marry each other will gradually and eventually be trumped by the Western ideal of individualism students will begin to make their marriage decisions based on their own personal liking instead of following age-old conservative customs entrenched in their baradaries . Today this mindset of individualism has taken hold in the mindset of urban educated youth who are striving to ensure that their decision be respected and upheld when it comes to marriage. The Western education system in combination with media (primarily progressive and romantic Bollywood films of the last decade and a half) have led the youth to question the conservative practices that were previously held with much respect. Title: Attitudes of University Students from India Toward Marriage and Family Life Authors: Vicki T. Davis and Raghu N. Singh Journal: International Journal of Sociology of the Family 1989, Vol. 19 (Autum) : 43-57 In this research, 83 Indian students in Texas Universities were asked about their opinions on marriage and family life. The report says that many social institutions in India have faced constant and gradual change. In India, the family is a very sacred institution and ranks second in importance after religion (Rao Rao, 1975). Many researches have been conducted to explore the impact of higher education on family patterns. When people go abroad to study, they experience greater freedom to make their own decisions and are no more bound by the controls of their families, and develop individuality, which may affect all family patterns of dwelling (Ross, 1961). In Rao Raos study (1976), 65% college students preferred nuclear families as compared to 35% supporting joint families. A study by Sharma and Shriram (1979) surveyed 25 newly married Indian couples about their opinions on the selection of marriage partners. The importance of interaction with their future partners was stressed by 80% of the respondents. These couples believed it was necessary to meet, socialize with, and have the opportunity to truly get to know the potential marriage partner. The majority of the couples also thought that the main choice in the selection of the marital partner should be made by the individuals, with consent of the parents. When the same kind of questions were asked of graduate students in Pakistan in 1969, 65% believed it was important to meet and know ones potential spouse before marriage. 30% of the respondents believed that there was no need to meet the future spouse, thus indicating their confidence in their parents ability to find them a suitabl e match (Korson, 1969) Author: Lord, Keelin (2007) Title: Romantic Love vs. Marriage: A Psychoanalytic Approach, Journal: ESSAI: Vol. 5, Article 30. The research by Keelin Lord questions and critcizes Western countries for promoting the concept of love marriage and explains the reasons behind the failure of love marriages and the rising number of divorces in America. Although there are many reasons why Pakistanis oppose the concept of love marriage including difference in social status between families, loss of parental authority and conservative mindset, the fact that love marriages lose their charm soon after the wedding is also an important factor. The writer says that the vehicle for promoting romance in American culture is its cinema industry. Romantic love has been portrayed in visual arts of western culture for centuries, such as operas, plays, dramas, paintings and films. Although these arts directly influence culture, most view art as an illusion as well as an escape from reality. Yet Americans still believe that romantic love is tangible and serves as a solid base for marriage. The writer further goes on to say that instead of taking romantic love as granted, it should be questioned and its mistakes should be learned from otherwise it will continue to be the cause of failed marriages. The writer conducted scientific tests on a number of participants to explain how the concept of love holds in an individuals mind. The tests revealed that romantic love is associated with higher levels of dopamine being released to the brain resulting in increased energy, higher motivation to acquite rewards and feelings of ecstasy things that people relate to romantic love. However, with time the feelings of romance fade away because of increased levels of the hormone oxytocin. Keeping these findings in mind, when romance is a base for marriage and attachment, the romance fades shortly after vows and the craving for a new romantic relationship evolves. In realizing this, one would begin to question why peoples now look for romance to provide them with a happy marriage. Primary Research Methodology Focus Group Interview Survey The survey sample was 66, with the age group being 17-26 years. 31 males were part of the survey and 35 females. This is the data that was obtained for whether the sample people thought there has been an increased acceptance of love marriages in our society. Do you think there has been an acceptance of love marriages in our society? Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Yes 55 83.3 83.3 No 11 16.7 100.0 Total 66 100.0 83.3% of the people (55 people) felt that there has been an increased acceptance of love marriages in our society and 16.6% (11 people) did not feel so. Of the 55 people who felt there was an increased acceptance, 28 were females and 27 males. And there was no correlation between gender and their opinion regarding acceptance of love marriages though, as analyzed by the Pearson correlation. When asked about whether Bollywood has played a role in the increasing number of love marriages amongst youth in Pakistan, 71.2% of people felt that it has had a role to play (47 people). Of these 47 people, 22 were males and 25 were females. Do you believe Bollywood movies have a role to play in the increasing number of love marriages amongst youth in Pakistan? Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Yes 47 71.2 71.2 No 19 28.8 28.8 100.0 Total 66 100.0 One person said As far as I have seen, Bollywood movies have created this fantasy-like image of love marriages in the minds of youth and lead to our youth to aspi

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Shakespeares Julius Caesar :: Plays William Shakespeare Caesar Essays

Shakespeare's Julius Caesar "A talent for drama is not a talent for writing, but is an ability to articulate human relationships"- Gore Vida. This is certainly true for William Shakespeare, on of the greatest writers of all time. He wrote such dramas like Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, Hamlet and Othello. Julius Caesar is no different. His ability to relate to human nature by using drama accurately distinguishes Julius Caesar from the rest by creating suspense, eagerness and tension. Act III Scene II is an especially important part to the play. Brutus I explaining got the crowd why Caesar was slain "as he was valiant, I honor him; but, as he was ambitious, I slew him" (ll. 30-31) and "Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more" (ll. 21-22). This quote proves and summarizes Brutus' point in his speech. To achieve his goals, Brutus' oratory techniques were simple, logical, and rational. Brutus' speech is very formal, controlled and it seems that all of the sentences are perfectly balanced. Although he did a very good job at explaining to the confused crowd that murdering Caesar was for the good of Rome, he still had not won them over yet. After he explained himself and his purpose, the people were reluctant to believe him, yet there were convinced for only a short while. Antony has sworn not to attack the conspirators, although he intends to. This creates more tension within the plot by adding layers of opposition. In Antony's speech, he paints a different picture of Caesar "HE hath brought many captives home to Rome/ Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill/ Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?" (ll.80-82). Antony continues by stating, "I thrice presented him a kingly crown/ Which he did thrice refuse. Was this ambition?" (ll. 87-89). He asks the people if they consider this ambitious, obviously implying it was not, because Caesar's deeds were for the good of Rome, not for Caesar himself. This art of persuasion is able to move the mob. All at once, they discard "noble Brutus" and listen to Antony who is a "plain blunt man". Clearly wooed by his impressive oration, the mob alters the fate of the conspirators, adding more suspense and drama to the plot. During the whole scene, it teases us leaving us on the edge waiting for the conclusion. The introduction of two characters adds suspense in Act II. Calphurnia, Caesar's wife, tries to convince him to stay at home. Being persistent she is able to convince him "Do not go forth today: call it my fear/ That keeps you in the house, and not your own" (Scene

Monday, November 11, 2019

Imperialism Dbq

Imperialism DBQ Before the late 19th century the United States had not expanded outside of the Americas this changed when wealth, population and industrial production increased. The demand for resources led to an era of imperialism. During this era expansionism in the United States kept the same principle but, it departed from previous expansions regarding to geography, politics and the economy. Americans kept the same principle, that God had given the U. S divine right to expand.The new† Manifest Destiny† was a continuation to the previous â€Å"Manifest Destiny†, except it extended to far away Islands that would not become states but instead become colonies. Many Americans continued to believe in Jackson Turner’s â€Å"Frontier Thesis†. They believed that if the U. S did not expand it would â€Å"explode†. In 1885 Josiah Strong wrote â€Å"Our Country, he advocated superiority of the Anglo-Saxons and urged Americans to spread their religion to the â€Å"backward† peoples (Doc. B).Americans had felt the need to take control of the Indians after the Civil War and they continued to exert colonial control over dependent peoples on the Islands. Previously the expansion movement had not gone overseas. The Monroe Doctrine had given the U. S control over the Americas and kept foreign countries from intervening. Germany and the U. S got into a dispute over the Samoan Islands and America kept half. In 1898 Hawaii was annexed. American expansionism also went to the Philippines, Cuba and Puerto Rico. The era of Imperialism differed in politics from expansionism in the Americas.European powers were colonizing the world and America was being left-out (Doc. A), by 1900 Europe had taken over 20 percent of the land and 10 percent of the population of the world. The U. S felt the desire to compete with Europe for overseas empires. Before the United States had felt the need to expand and become a strong country, but now it was a c ompetition of world dominance. In The Influence of Sea Power upon History Alfred Mahan said that control of the sea was the key to world dominance and empire. Americans felt strong sea power was necessary to protect themselves from other countries ( Doc.C). When the Cubans rebelled against Spain the U. S became involved. Yellow journalism fueled the start of the Spanish-American War. The United States won the war when Spain signed the treaty of Paris as a result Cuba became a free country, the U. S received Guam and also gained Puerto Rico. During the Russo- Japanese War Theodore Roosevelt did not want either side to gain a monopoly in Asia, but also did not want to start a war. After Japan secretly asked him to help sponsor peace negotiations, Theodore ended the war with the Treaty of Portsmouth. Economically U.S expansionism was a departure because, foreign trade had become an important part of the American economy. When the McKinley Tariff raised Hawaiian sugar prices, American s ugar planters wanted Hawaii to be annexed so the tariffs would be eliminated. Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii, but later changed his mind when it was needed as a coaling and provisioning way station so supplies could be sent to Dewey in Manila Harbor. The U. S bought the Philippines from Spain but didn’t set them free because they were a way to China, businessmen clamoured for the new Philippine market and it had desirable raw resources (Doc.E). The Chinese market was huge and American manufacturers feared that it would become monopolized by Europeans. So America issued the Open Door Policy so every nation would have fair competition (Doc. G). During the Era of Imperialism the United States went from being a strong nation to becoming a world power. It keep the same principle, that it was the superior race and God had given them the right to colonize, but left behind its old was relating to politics, economy and geography.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Ball State Universitys Online MBA Degree Essays

Ball State Universitys Online MBA Degree Essays Ball State Universitys Online MBA Degree Essay Ball State Universitys Online MBA Degree Essay Ball State University set its grounds back in 1918 and since then it’s ranked as one of the best universities located in the Midwest area. This university had only few degrees at first. As years were passing by the Ball State University grew and now students can enroll to variety of degrees in many fields. It offers a master, bachelor, doctoral and associate degree in the field you would like to study. For all those students who want to study at an accredited university, the Ball State University has been AACSB accredited. Its online MBA program is also included under this accreditation. Additional accreditations this university received from NCACS and HLC. Ball State University started with its Online MBA Programs more than a decade ago. Now it offers degrees in: Sales Management of MBA Entrepreneurship MBA Finance MBA Operations MBA Health Economics and Administration Policy MBA All of these programs have been made to serve the students. All accepted students will have the opportunity to get the proper education, real world instructions and practical experience. There are many courses which have been made especially for this purpose. There is Global Strategic Management, Leadership courses, Marketing Management, Economic Analysis for all managers, Managerial Finance, Decision Making and Accounting, Quantitative Methods and Statistics and Information System courses. All of these have the perfect curriculum to show you the right direction in the real world. Ball State University requires a completed online application that needs to be sent within deadlines. There are 2 semesters you can choose for enrolling to this university: the summer semester with April 1 set as a deadline and December 1 is the deadline for the spring semester. All students need to have high GRE and GMAT scores in order to be accepted. When it comes to financial aid, Ball State University offers grants, scholarships and loans for all students. The cost for enrolling to this program is up to $24,940 for all students who don’t live around the state of Indiana. The students who want to file an application to this university can include the FAFSA application for receiving financial aid. According to the official website of this university more than 75% are receiving some sort of financial aid every year. As you can see you have great chances for getting financial help and avoid paying a lot of money.