Thursday, May 21, 2020

Autism The Fastest Growing Disorder - 1076 Words

Autism affects people in a lot of different ways. Autism is the fastest growing disorder in the U.S.There is no cure for this disorder but there is treatment. Autism costs a family about $60,000 in one year on average. Symptoms of ASD can have different ranges depending on the person’s. Communication for an Autistic person is extremely difficult, so ASD people don’t even speak, they use hand signals or gestures. Peoples with ASD have a difficult time in social settings, they tend to have outburst or become reclusive depending on the situation. Some ASD people require only 2-4 hours of sleep on a regular basis while others can go for up to 72 hours of no sleep, there has been few but some who can stay awake for weeks at a time. The reason for this is because ASD people’s brains don’t sleep, They never get into a full deep rem sleep because the activities in their brain continue to function on overload. Studies show that 1 in every 3 boys have some type of ASD spectrum, boys are more likely to test as ASD spectrum. The In the United States 1 out of 68 children have autism. About 41% of 4 million kids have autism in the United States. Studies in Asia, Europe, and North America have identified individuals with ASD with an average prevalence of about 1%. A study in South Korea reported a prevalence of 2.6%. Boys however, have a much higher chance of getting autism than girls . If a sibling gets autism there is a very small percentage that the other sibling will end up gettingShow MoreRelatedAutism Essay1317 Words   |  6 Pages12 Block 8 6 October 2014 Autism Spectrum Disorder Autistic children experience the world a lot more differently than others. For example, children with autism are not capable of using words, and have a hard time communicating in general by any means. Specific sounds, like loud crashes and yelling, would bother an autistic child that wouldn’t normally bother a child that wasn’t autistic. We need to learn more about autism so we can handle it, as it is the fastest growing developmental disease inRead MoreWolfgang Mozart Was Born In Salzburg, Austria In January1057 Words   |  5 Pageslike others he was diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. According to the American Psychological Association (2000), â€Å"Autism is the most severe developmental disability. Appearing within the first three years of life, autism involves impairments in social interaction — such as being aware of other people’s feelings — and verbal and nonverbal communication.† Experts are still uncertain about the causes of autism. Unlike other disorders autism spectrum disorder has multiple causes. Genetic factorsRead MoreAutism Is A Mental Condition Essay1321 Words   |  6 PagesThe definition of Autism is a mental condition, resent from early childhood, characterized by difficulty in communicating and forming relationships with other people and in using language and abstract concepts. Autism is not classified as a disease, it is a mental condition. Some symptoms might be poor eye contact, compulsive and repetitive behaviors, repetitive movements, unaware of others emotions, depression, anxiety, change in voice, and obsessive interests. Autism makes it hard for a personRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder ( Asd )1273 Words   |  6 Pagesit. In the process, they gained knowledge about a disorder that is now referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), or simply Autism. ASD is a developmental disorder that results in difficulty in social interactio ns, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Researchers have come a long way in gathering knowledge about the complex disorder since it was first discovered. Many of its aspects have been discovered and redefined to shape the disorder that is diagnosed and studied today. However, muchRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder And Autism1492 Words   |  6 Pageslife there are several different disorders that have been well known from many years ago. There is one disorder that was diagnosed in the early 1800’s but it wasn’t until a few years ago that it gained lots of attention. What used to be known as Autism was later renamed in the DSM to Autism Spectrum Disorder meaning, a neurodevelopmental disorder rather than a pervasive developmental disorder (Gargiulo, 2015). Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder characterized by abnormal or impairedRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder ( Autism )1450 Words   |  6 PagesAutism Spectrum Disorder Many of us have heard about Autism, also knows as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Some have a family member, a friend, or know someone who has ASD. Increasingly it is becoming a more common disability. â€Å"Autism is one of the fastest-growing developmental disorders in the U.S† (Autism Speaks). Autism has no respect for gender, race, social class and or ethnicity. â€Å"Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that involves abnormal development and function of the brain.† (AutismRead MoreInformational Essay on Autism598 Words   |  3 PagesAutism About 1 percent of the world population has autism spectrum disorder. (CDC, 2014) Autism is the fastest growing developmental disability. Autism is defined by a certain set of behaviors and is a spectrum disorder that effects individuals differently. Autism is a serious and lifelong developmental disability. On its own, autism is not a learning disability or a mental health problem. To go further back into history, autism was first recognized in the early years of the 20th century byRead MoreIn Recent Years, The Prevalence Of Autism Spectrum Disorder1357 Words   |  6 Pagesyears, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased greatly (Nevison 2014). For example, in 2000 the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network estimated about 1 in 150 children had ASD. Six years later in 2006, the prevalence increased to about 1 in every 110 children and then most recently in 2012 to 1 in 68 children. According to the CDC (2008) autism is the fastest-growing developmental disability. With the growing prevalence of autism, the society has beenRead MoreThe Prevalence Of Autism And Autism Essay921 Words   |  4 Pages2000, the prevalence of autism has increased by nearly 120 percent: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), this makes autism the fastest-growing developmental disability in the U.S. http://www. A March 27, 2014 announcement from the CDC states that autism impacts 1 in 68 children across the nation. First Responders and Autism Awareness Every day,Read MoreOutline Of A Social Awareness1691 Words   |  7 Topic: Autism Introduction Attention getter: Autism affects every 1 in 68 children; It is one of the fastest growing developmental disorders in the u.s (Facts about Autism. Autism Speaks. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2016. Minor details about the issue Autism FAQ - History. Autism FAQ - History. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2016. . history Thesis: BodyX3 Topic sentence: The definition/ characteristic Autism Characteristics. List of Autism Characteristics. N.p., n

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Domestic Violence At Affordable Price Please Use Custom...

Domestic Violence Research Paper This sample domestic violence research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on domestic violence at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. This sample research paper on domestic violence features: 7200+ words (26 pages), an outline, APA format in-text citations, and a bibliography with 31 sources. Outline I. Introduction II. History III. Types of Abuse A. Physical Violence B. Sexual Violence C. Psychological Violence D. Stalking E.†¦show more content†¦Domestic violence exists within all cultures, ethnicities, faiths, age groups, education levels, income levels, and sexual orientations. Domestic violence can occur between many different kinds of couples: married or unmarried couples, couples who live in rural areas and urban areas, those that cohabitate or live separately, couples that had been formerly married or had dated, and between heterosexual or same-sex couples. Furthermore, sexual intimacy is not required to be present in a relationship in order for domestic violence to occur. While the statutory term for domestic violence in most states usually includes other family members besides intimate partners, such as children, parents, siblings, sometimes roommates, and so forth, practitioners typically apply the term domestic violence to a coercive, systemic pattern of physical, sexual, or psychological abuse between intimate partners. Victims of domestic violence can be women or men; however, the overwhelming majority of domestic violence involves women as victims and men as perpetrators. For this reason, many organizations concerned with domestic violence focus their attention and services specifically on violence against women and their children. The following section of this research paper discusses the types and prevalence of domestic violence. It also discusses domestic violence warning signs, stalking, dating violence, and

A History Of Ethnical Convergence History Essay Free Essays

string(102) " and to sell them at a set monetary value for the interest of economic advantages \( Thompson 35 \) \." Many archeologists, scientists, and bookmans agree that earliest beginnings of world semen from Africa. Strong, disordering currents, a deficiency of natural seaports, and wild seasonal conditions environing South Africa made the undertaking of voyaging its seashore rather hard for sea fairing civilisations ; this besides left the country mostly in isolation from the remainder of the universe. The people of South Africa lived in typical groups and countries and with different life styles, but many of them shared similar linguistic communications and agencies of endurance. We will write a custom essay sample on A History Of Ethnical Convergence History Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now When Europeans arrived and settled in South Africa, its one time isolated and limited cultural population was all of the sudden opened up to wholly different races of people. The cultural populations and civilizations of South Africa have changed dramatically throughout history, particularly because of the influence of European colony. Homosexual sapiens, modern worlds, have lived in the Southern Africa for around one hundred millenary. By the clip â€Å" of the Christian epoch, human communities had lived in Southern Africa by runing, fishing, and roll uping comestible workss for many 1000s of old ages † ( Thompson 6 ) . These people were the Khoikhoi and San. Together, they were known as the Khoisan, but they were separate and typical people groups. They lived and survived by distinguishable yet blended life styles. Populating in the most waterless of countries, the San survived by taking advantage of their milieus and lived as hunter-gatherers. Their communities and lives were based around their mobility as they had to travel continuously throughout the twelvemonth to happen nutrient. They took with them merely what they could transport and care for. Often, seniors were left behind when they could no longer care for themselves, and babes and other kids were killed because there was small to care for them with ( Thompson 9 ) . To the West of the South Africa ‘s 20 inch rainfall line, the Khoikhoi were crowding sheep and cowss where they could happen and claim equal croping countries. They were similar to the hunter-gatherers genetically and in the fact that their lives, excessively, were based around mobility. To the E of the 20 inch rainfall line, people lived as assorted husbandmans. They herded sheep and cowss but besides grew harvests. They lived in more lasting small towns during the twelvemonth and had a stronger, more complex political system than that of the Khoikhoi or the San. They spoke the Bantu linguistic communication and â€Å" were the ascendants of the bulk of dwellers of contemporary Southern Africa † ( Thompson 10 ) . When Europeans began to research and topographic point bases in the country, they knew the hunter-gatherers as Bushmen, the Herders as Hottentots, and the assorted husbandmans as Kaffirs ( Thompson 10 ) . Throughout the 15 century, Lusitanian seamans were researching farther and further along the western seashore of Africa. In 1487, Bartholomeu Dias ‘ led an expedition of two caravels, little Portuguese seafaring vass, and rounded the Cape peninsula in the thick of a storm ; they so traveled another three hundred and 40 stat mis along the southern seashore before sailing back to Lisbon. Ten old ages subsequently, Vasco de Gama led a two twelvemonth Lusitanian expedition that rounded the Cape, sailed along the eastern coastline to Malindi ( now known as Mombasa ) , and so crossed the Indian Ocean to Calicut, India. He returned place with lone two of his four ships ( Thompson 31 ) . Throughout the 16th century, the Lusitanian authorities sent one-year fleets around the Cape of Good Hope into the Indian Ocean and destroyed the Arab transportation they encountered in the Indian Ocean. Finally, they began to deviate transportation from the antediluvian Persian Gulf and Red Sea tradin g paths to the pelagic paths around the Cape ( Thompson 32 ) . In the mid 17th century, a Dutch crew wrecked along the southern seashore of Africa and they remained there for the winter until they were rescued. The undermentioned twelvemonth in 1652, the Dutch East India Company created a bracing station in Table Bay called Cape Town to supply fresh H2O, veggies, and meat to go throughing ships and to move besides as a hospital/resting topographic point for sick crewmans ( â€Å" South Africa History † ) . The Cape station was non intended to do a net income, but the disbursals of disposal were intended to be kept at a lower limit ( Thompson 33 ) . Under rigorous instructions that the local people were non to be enslaved, Jan new wave Riebeek, commanding officer of the Cape, requested that Asiatic slaves would be imported to the station to make the agriculture required to supply for go throughing ships and to construct a fortress. Slaves did non get in Cape Town for another f ive old ages and the station ‘s lone slaves were stowaways and those given to them by ships go throughing by ; therefore, South Africa ‘s passage into a great multiracial land began ( â€Å" South Africa Timeline 3 † ) . The people of Cape Town traded with Khoikhoi peoples, known to the white colonists as Hottentots, for cowss and sheep, and the local people became skilled in bartering for European metals and â€Å" organic structure decorations † ( â€Å" Thompson 37 † ) . Van Riebeek used Autsumao, head of the Goringhaikonas and known to the Dutch as Herry, as a transcriber for these trades ( â€Å" South Africa Timeline 3 † ) . As the Dutch settlement continued to put claims towards southwesterly Africa, the Khoikhoi were forced to bear the unanticipated challenge that the Dutch invasion presented them. The colonists ‘ dealingss with the Khoikhoi peoples rapidly degenerated into busting and warfare ( â€Å" South African History † ) ; in 1653, Autsumao murdered the colonists ‘ cowss herder and left with about the entireness of the colonists ‘ herd. Autsumao returned old ages subsequently, being accepted back into Cape Town, and was non punished for his actions ( â€Å" South Africa Timeline 3 † ) . In 1657, the Dutch East Company released nine employees, known as free burgesss, from their contracts and allotted them twenty-acre landholdings at Rondebosch six stat mis south of Table Bay to bring forth grains and veggies and to sell them at a set monetary value for the interest of economic advantages ( Thompson 35 ) . You read "A History Of Ethnical Convergence History Essay" in category "Essay examples" Using the Dutch theoretical account of agriculture, the free burgesss tried in vain to farm and work the lands, but they lacked the accomplishments and adult male power necessary for the occupation. After the company â€Å" imported one boatload of slaves from Dahomey and another boatload of Angolan slaves † in 1658, the Cape settlement became a slave dependant colony ( Thompson 36 ) . As the settlement entered into the 1700 ‘s, its free burgess, retainer, and break one’s back population grew and began to develop its ain construction and form. Among the colony ‘s population, colonists came from the lower categories of â€Å" Hierarchical Dutch [ and ] German society † and Huguenots flying the Protestant persecution from France. By 1711, its slaves were far more legion than the free burgesss and came from topographic points like Mozambique, Madagascar, Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka ( Thompson 36 ) . In the undermentioned twosome of old ages, an outbreak European diseases such as little syphilis, which South Africa ‘s autochthonal people had small to no immunisation against, resulted in â€Å" practical decimation of the south-western Cape Khoikhoi † population and the deceases of a one-fourth of the European population ( â€Å" South Africa Timeline 4 † ) . A midcentury nose count of the Cape showed that a bulk of the s ettlement ‘s Asiatic slaves were focused in town and its slaves of African descent were found more normally working on the outlying, boundary line farms. The Asiatic slaves created an artisan category ; they brought with them their Islamic faith and had a enormous consequence on the working category of South Africa ( â€Å" South Africa History † ) . As the settlement reached into the 1770 ‘s it pushed its boundary line to the Algoa Bay and Graaf-Reinet. The husbandmans of these outlying territories were the first colonist to come into contact with the AmaXhosa ; when the settlement extended its range once more to the Upper Fish and Bushmen rivers, a series of â€Å" anti-colonial † wars with the AmaXhosa began. Many of the Khoikhoi struggled with their ideals of trueness to the white husbandmans, who they obeyed, and to the Xhosa, who had already accepted assorted Khoikhoi into their chiefdoms ( Thompson 50 ) . The Xhosa and Khoikhoi foray and assail the o utlying farms, killing people, stealing farm animal, and destructing belongings. Many husbandmans abandoned their land but subsequently retaliated by puting up two rangers that followed the Xhosa back into their ain land. The ranger took advantage of the Xhosa ‘s split chiefdoms and used hocus-pocus to rupture apart the Xhosa chiefdoms. These onslaughts and events have been written â€Å" down in history as the First War of Dispossession † ( â€Å" South Africa Timeline 4 † ) . In the ulterior portion of the twelvemonth 1795, the British captured the Cape from the Dutch, and though the Dutch regulation was briefly restored in the early 1800 ‘s, this finally marked the terminal of the Dutch Cape settlement and the beginning of the British Cape Colony. John Cradock replaced Governor Caledon in the twelvemonth 1811. He created a program to wholly clear the Xhosa out of the eastern lands of the Cape, and these undertakings were done ruthlessly, ensuing in the slaying of non merely the Xhosa work forces but besides adult females and kids. Eight old ages subsequently, the Xhosa made a awful and despairing effort to derive back control of some of their former land, but they were defeated and pushed back in a mode similar to their first onslaught. These racial glades are known individually as the Fourth and Fifth War of Dispossession ( â€Å" South Africa Timeline 5 † ) . In 1820, the British Government created a grant and selected some four thousand people to settle in the lands late cleared of the Xhosa. The settlement was now non merely inclusive of Dutch, German, and Gallic colonists, a battalion of diverse slaves, and the Khoisian people, but besides â€Å" a mixture of people from England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland † ( Thompson 55 ) . Another 1000 colonists came on their ain agencies of payment. The earlier Dutch, German, and Gallic colonists were given the label â€Å" Boer † , which means famer and had an implied negative significance, and the 1820 Settlers took on the label â€Å" Afrikaner † ; the Afrikaners have therefore â€Å" ever formed at least 55 per centum of the white population † ( Thompson 56 ) . In the really same twelvemonth, the Zulu land began to lift and added to the ageless force of the South African peoples. In each decennary for the 30 ‘s, the 40 ‘s, and the 50 ‘s, frontier wars were fought as the colony sought to cover with those Xhosa husbandmans who began to dribble back into the country accompanied by the Mfengu, who were flying â€Å" from the spread outing Zulu imperium † ( Thompson 62 ) . Slaves were officially freed in the British Cape settlement in 1838. However, they still did non basically have the same rights as the white colonists. Around the mid 19th century, many of the Boers left the British Cape settlement and â€Å" set about a northern migrationaˆÂ ¦known as the ‘Great Trek ‘ † ( â€Å" Background Notes 4 † ) . They subsequently became known as â€Å" Voortrekkers † . After migrating through Zulu countries of struggle for about ten to fifteen old ages, the independent Boer Republics of Transvaal and Orange Free State were created in 1852 and 1854 ( â€Å" South Africa Timeline 5 † ) . Natal became a 2nd focal point for the British in Southern Africa. While 1000s of Boers, or Voortrekkers, had left on the Great Trek, 1000s of people were geting from Britain to settle in Natal throughout the old ages of 1849 and 1851. The population more than tripled in size within 20 old ages: 15 thousand British colonists and three 1000 Afrikanders. Through the old ages of â€Å" 1860 and 1866, six thousand Indians arrived in Natal from Madras and Calcutta † to work plantations as apprenticed retainers. They brought with them their faiths and societal systems with them. Within six to ten old ages, the first Indians were permitted to return to their places in India, but most opted to remain. This remained a form until a â€Å" ample Indian population † had been created that would even finally outnumber the Whites of Natal ( Thompson 100 ) . Between 1870 and 1910, British imperialism peaked with the find of rich mineral resources in South Africa. An thought of racism, ever back uping white domination, had been developing, and black workers were forced to populate in compounds while they worked the mines in hapless conditions and for hapless wage. They lived in rigorous subject and were non allowed to see their households sometimes for six months or more at a clip ( Thompson 119 ) . Between 1910 and 1939, was a clip of tremendous political agitation and racial segregation and bias, particularly aimed negatively towards the African and â€Å" Coloured † population. Harmonizing to a 1936 nose count of the urban population, people numbered more than three million and made up 31 per centum of the overall population. From this, â€Å" 1.3 million were classified as White, 1.1 million as African, 400,000 as coloured, and 200,000 as Asiatic † . In the towns of South Africa was â€Å" 60 five per centum of the White populationaˆÂ ¦44 per centum of the Coloured, 66 per centum of the Asian, and 17 per centum of the African population † ( Thompson 166 ) . Mineral mining continued to command the lives of the destitute hapless and the pockets of the wealthy. Strikes were frequently organized and addresss were made as workers tried in vain to assume their rights from those keep backing them, but without a widespread organisation amongst the strikers and a agency of support, these normally fell through rapidly. The longest work stoppage attempt was in 1946, lasted four yearss and brought eight gold mines to standstill. Many of the mineworkers were forced back into the mines by barbarous agencies ( Thompson 179-180 ) . In May of 1948, Dr. D.F. Malan came into power with the Nationalist Party and made apartheid, racial segregation, functionary and legal in South Africa, non to be changed until the presidential term of Nelson Mandela about half a century subsequently. Originally a geographically closed off and stray country, the autochthonal people of South Africa developed their ain civilizations, political systems, and agencies of endurance. Yet their isolation was obvious in that groups such as the Khoikhoi and San were genetically similar and shared similar linguistic communications. If the Dutch had non been the first to settle on South Africa ‘s shores, no uncertainty it would hold most likely been settled by the British or another European power. Because of the original European influence in South Africa in fifteenth and 16th centuries, South Africa is now place to an improbably diverse cultural and cultural population with a alone history that binds them all together. How to cite A History Of Ethnical Convergence History Essay, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Saaaa free essay sample

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS GCE Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level MARK SCHEME for the November 2005 question paper 9708 ECONOMICS 9708/04 Paper 4, maximum raw mark 70 This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and students, to indicate the requirements of the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were initially instructed to award marks. It does not indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners’ meeting before marking began. Any substantial changes to the mark scheme that arose from these discussions will be recorded in the published Report on the Examination. All Examiners are instructed that alternative correct answers and unexpected approaches in candidates’ scripts must be given marks that fairly reflect the relevant knowledge and skills demonstrated. Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the Report on the Examination. The minimum marks in these components needed for various grades were previously published with these mark schemes, but are now instead included in the Report on the Examination for this session. We will write a custom essay sample on Saaaa or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page †¢ CIE will not enter into discussion or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes. CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the November 2005 question papers for most IGCSE and GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level syllabuses. Page 1 Mark Scheme GCE AS/A LEVEL – NOVEMBER 2005 Syllabus 9708 Paper 4 Section A 1 (a) What evidence is there in the article that the UK mobile phone companies operate in an imperfect market structure? Only four companies, can fix price, have product differentiation in the handsets, no perfect knowledge. (b) Explain the statement ‘one result will be that cross-subsidisation will disappear and the price of a new handset will go up considerably. Explanation of meaning of subsidising one product or service by the profits on another which itself may be overpriced. The removal of the subsidy will result in the price of the subsidised product increasing if profit levels are to be maintained. Often the subsidised product makes a loss but is produced because it is supplementary to other profit making products or services. (c) The article says the decision of the High Court will cost the companies ? 1. 5 billion to ? 2 billion. Explain how the phone companies might react in order to retain their profit levels. Could try to reduce labour costs, implement some redundancies, could stop research and development, could generally try to reduce costs or could try to increase revenue by promoting products through advertising. (d) Explain with the aid of a diagram how the existence of termination charges would affect consumer surplus. Termination charges are placed above the market level. Diagram should show a price above market clearing which will result in reduction in consumer surplus. 1 mark for D/S diagram correctly labelled; 1 for showing the reduced area of consumer surplus; 1 for explanation. e) Does the information lead you to agree with the spokesperson when he said that consumers should not necessarily regard the decision as a good thing? In consumers’ interest: they would save ? 700 but over next three years, price reduction would be on all calls. Against consumers’ interest: cost of telephone handset would rise; there is a fear of increased calls for text messages; possib ility of phone company finding some other way to keep profits high. [6] [4] [4] [3] [4]  © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005 Page 2 Mark Scheme GCE AS/A LEVEL – NOVEMBER 2005 Syllabus 9708 Paper 4 General comments for Section B The essay questions carry a maximum mark of 25. Try not to bunch marks, but use the whole mark range. If there is any doubt in your mind, give the benefit of doubt to the candidate. The difference in grades should be assessed on the ability of the candidate to demonstrate the various objectives of the examination listed in the syllabus and not purely on the ability to itemise further facts from the content of the syllabus. Marks should be awarded for the ability to demonstrate that aim (b) of the syllabus has been achieved as well as aim (a) which refers to content knowledge. It is the objective of the examination, as listed in the syllabus, to assess both these aims. An overall guide for marks for individual questions is given below; these are from a total of 25. They may be applied proportionally of course to parts of questions where the total is less than 25: Mark 1 – 9 (Linked to level one in individual question notes). 1-5 where the answer is mostly irrelevant and only contains a few valid points made incidentally in an irrelevant context. There will also be substantial omissions of analysis. here the answer shows some knowledge but does not indicate that the meaning of the question has been properly grasped. Basic errors of theory or an inadequate development of analysis may be evident. 6–9 Mark 10 – 13 (Linked to level two in individual question notes). 10 –11 where there is evidence of an ability to identify facts or some ability at graphs and/or a fair ability to apply known laws to new situations. There should be an a ccurate although undeveloped explanation of the facts relating to the question together with an explanation of the theory, and evidence of some bility to discriminate and form elementary judgements. Do not expect a clear logical presentation. There will not be much evidence of the ability to recognise unstated assumptions, nor to examine the implications of a hypothesis, nor of the ability to organise ideas into a new unity. 12 – 13 where the answer has a more thorough relevance to the question but where the theory is incompletely explained.  © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005 Page 3 Mark Scheme GCE AS/A LEVEL – NOVEMBER 2005 Syllabus 9708 Paper 4 14 17 (Linked to level 3 in individual question notes). 4 –15 where there is a good knowledge of the facts and theory of the question, clear evidence of the ability to use the facts and theory with accurate reference to the question that may have presented the candidate with a novel applicatio n. There should also be evidence, where appropriate, of the ability to examine the implications of the question and an attempt to distinguish between facts and value judgements. Clear statements, supported by reasoned arguments should be given and there should be some attempt at a conclusion to the question. There should be a reasoned structure to the whole answer. Do not expect too many extra Illustrative points which are not explicitly referred to in the question, do not expect too much critical comment on unstated assumptions 16 17 for an answer showing a well reasoned understanding of the questions requirements and of the relevant theory: the analysis should be sound though the illustration and development may not be very full. 18 25 (Linked to level 4 in individual question notes). 18 –20 where there is a thorough knowledge of the facts and theory with an excellent ability to describe, explain or analyse this in a precise, logical, reasoned manner. There should be an ability to query some of the assumptions in the question and clear evidence of an ability to distinguish between fact and value judgements and to draw some conclusions on the matter being discussed. Conclusions should be formed and expressed within a sound structured answer so that the whole is well presented. New illustrations and apposite examples should be introduced as further evidence of an ability to recognise the principles of the question and their application to relevant current situations. 1 25 for an answer which, given the time constraint, could not be improved significantly: it will have clear analysis, ample illustration and a good attempt at considered evaluation. Be positive in your marking, awarding marks for what is there without being too much influenced by omissions. Marks should not be deleted for inaccuracies. Corresponding marks for sub-sections. Total Mark 10 Total Mark 12 Total Mark 13 Total Mark 15 1 1-3 1-4 1-4+ 1-5 2 4-5 5-6 5-6+ 6-8 3 6-7 7-8 7-8+ 9-11 4 8-10 9-12 9-13 12-15  © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005 Page 4 Mark Scheme GCE AS/A LEVEL – NOVEMBER 2005 Syllabus 9708 Paper 4 Section B 2 (a) Explain what is meant by efficient resource allocation in a free market. L4 L3 L2 L1 (b) For a sound explanation with clear understanding of the principles involved in the analysis. [8 – 10] For a competent explanation but with limited development of the analysis. [6 – 7] For a correct explanation of a free market but undeveloped explanation of allocative efficiency. [4 – 5] For an answer which has some basic correct facts but includes irrelevancies. Errors of theory or omissions of analysis will be substantial. 1 – 3] [10] Would you agree that in some circumstances it is best to accept the decision such as that of the French government and abandon the search for economic efficiency through the free market? [15] Discussion of the reason for market failure. Monopolies, merit goods, public goods. Consideration of whether this might apply in the case of the large engineeri ng company. L4 L3 L2 L1 For a reasoned discussion of causes of market failure and clearly structured answer. [12 – 15]. For a fair explanation of market failure but lack of development and reasoned conclusion. 9 – 11] For a limited but acceptable attempt to consider some market failures. [6 – 8] For an answer which has some basic correct facts but includes irrelevancies. Errors of theory or omissions of analysis will be substantial. [1 – 5] 3 (a) Explain how trade unions can be incorporated into the economic analysis of wage determination. [12] Candidates are asked to comment on trade unions so the economic theory of wages that they should use is that for an imperfect market. This theory should be explained using marginal revenue productivity. Trade unions can have an effect on the supply curve which is now no longer solely determined by market forces. Where the actual wage will be determined depends upon the relative strengths of the employer and the trade union. L4 L3 L2 L1 For a sound discussion with good explanation of the analysis and a clear understanding of the principles involved. [9 – 12] [7 – 8 D and S approach] For a competent comment but with limited elaboration of the analysis. [7 – 8] [5-6 D and S approach] For a correct explanation of part of the analysis. Candidates might explain either the government or the unions. 5 – 6] [3+ – 4 D and S approach] For an answer which has some basic correct facts but includes irrelevancies. Errors of theory or omissions of analysis will be substantial. [1 – 4] [1 –3 D and S approach]  © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005 Page 5 Mark Scheme GCE AS/A LEVEL – NOVEMBER 2005 Syllabus 9708 Paper 4 (b) Discuss the possible effects that trade unions might have on the economy of a country. [13] Trade unions could affect the supply of labour and working practices. They could cause production to decrease with consequent downward effects on income, spending and national income. Candidates could explain this using the multiplier concept. Union could, however, through negotiation prevent disruption of production, or could monitor the implementation of safety procedures which might involve extra spending by the employer. This might well have an upward effect on national income. L4 L3 L2 L1 For a reasoned and clear explanation with accurate development of theory contrasting possible outcomes. [9 – 13] For a clear but undeveloped explanation which concentrates on change of income in one direction only. 7 – 8] For a limited attempt to consider the theory and with a greater concentration on the descriptive elements. [5 – 6] For an answer which has some basic correct facts but includes irrelevancies. Errors of theory or omissions of analysis are substantial. [1 – 4] 4 (a) With the help of diagrams distinguish between normal profit and abnormal profit. [10] Diagrams to show normal and abnormal profit with accompanying explanation of the c urves used in the diagram. Candidates can distinguish between perfect and imperfect markets. L4 L3 L2 L1 For a sound explanation, good diagrams correctly labelled, with clear understanding of the principles involved in the analysis. [8 – 10] For a competent explanation but with limited development of the analysis. Diagrams clear but not fully labelled. [6 – 7] For a correct explanation of terms but some poor diagrams. [4 – 5] For an answer which has some basic correct facts but includes irrelevancies. Errors of theory or omissions of analysis will be substantial. [1 – 3] (b) Discuss whether firms always want to maximise profits and are able to do so in the way suggested by economic theory. 15] Discussion of the theory of profit maximisation. Candidates should consider not only whether it is possible to calculate marginal revenue and marginal cost to achieve profit maximisation but also whether the firm might have alternative aims. Sales maximisation, behavioural, managerial, satisficing, market share aims might be mentioned. L4 L3 L2 L1 For a reas oned discussion and clearly structured answer. [12 – 15] For a fair discussion but undeveloped answer mentioning either only one part of the question or both parts but only scant mention of alternative aims. 9 – 11] For a limited but acceptable attempt to consider the question with very limited development of either part. [6 – 8] For an answer which has some basic correct facts but includes irrelevancies. Errors of theory or omissions of analysis will be substantial. [1 – 5]  © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005 Page 6 Mark Scheme GCE AS/A LEVEL – NOVEMBER 2005 Syllabus 9708 Paper 4 5 How far do you agree that low interest rates and low inflation are the most important aims of government policy in maximising economic welfare? 25] Discussion of the general macro aims of government policy with a comment on whether the two mentioned should be regarded as the most crucial. The effect of low interest rates and low inflation and po ssible links between them can be developed. Reasons should be given for either choosing or not choosing these aims as the most important. L4 L3 L2 L1 For a thorough explanation of the aims, a clear analysis of the link between them, a discussion of the possible outcome of a choosing either those aims or alternatives with a reasoned conclusion. 18 – 25] For a competent explanation of the aims but where there is only limited attempt to consider the significance of the importance of the aims. There will be some discussion but the evaluation will not be fully developed or extensive. [14 – 17] For an accurate though undeveloped explanation with some attempt at analysis but only limited evaluation. [10 – 13] For an answer which shows some knowledge but does not indicate that the question has been fully grasped. The answer will have some correct facts but include irrelevancies. Errors of theory or omissions of analysis will be substantial. 1 – 9] 6 With the appr oval of the Malaysian government, the Swedish company IKEA, the world’s largest retailer of home furnishings, has invested $106 million in Malaysia in the past three years. It plans to open another large store in the country, employing 450 people with expected sales of approximately $50 million in the first year. (Herald Tribune Aug 15 03 p 12) (a) Use the multiplier analysis to explain what effect this investment might have on the Malaysian national income. [10] Discussion of the effect of increasing investment in terms of employment, income, spending, saving. Multiplier analysis. Usually this question is asked with reference to government spending and investment but this is a large investment and it also will have multiplier effects. L4 L3 L2 L1 For a sound explanation of the analysis and a clear understanding of the principles involved. [8 – 10] For a competent comment but with limited elaboration of the analysis. [6 – 7] For a correct explanation of part of the analysis. Candidates might explain how investment might increase income but might not deal with further increases in as they do not discuss what leakages occur at each ‘round’. 4 – 5] For an answer which has some basic correct facts but includes irrelevancies. Errors of theory or omissions of analysis will be substantial. [1 – 3]  © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005 Page 7 Mark Scheme GCE AS/A LEVEL – NOVEMBER 2005 Syllabus 9708 Paper 4 (b) Discuss whether the activities of multi-national companies are always beneficial. Candidates should discuss the effects of large companies. They could consider whether a large company is beneficial for the shareholders, the workforce and the consumer. These groups may be in different countries. They should comment on the effect in host country where wages/incomes/employment might increase and on the possible benefits for directors (and shareholders) who may be in the home country. The multi-national might have chosen to operate in the host country because of reduced costs or cheaper inputs so a comment on the possible benefits of comparative advantage would be pertinent. L4 L3 L2 L1 For a sound discussion with good explanation of the analysis and a clear understanding of the principles involved. Reasoned evaluative comments should be given. 12 – 15] For a competent comment but with only limited evaluation of the effects. [9 – 11] For a correct discussion of the analysis but with only very brief, or no evaluation. [6 – 8] For an answer which has some basic correct facts but includes irrelevancies. Errors of theory or omissions of analysis will be substantial. [1 – 5] [15] 7 ‘There are so many difficulties in measuring living standards that w e can never be sure that people in one country are better off than those in another country. ’ Comment upon this statement. [25] Candidates should consider each part of the statement. They should discuss whether there are many difficulties in measuring living standards and give reasons for their conclusion on this part of the question. They should then consider whether it is possible to compare one country with another and discuss what use national income statistics might be. They should form an overall conclusion. L4 L3 L2 L1 For a thorough explanation of the difficulties of measuring living standards, and a clear conclusion to the assertion followed by a consideration of the usefulness of using the statistics to make comparisons. [18 – 25] For a competent explanation of the difficulties but with a limited conclusion. There will be some consideration of comparison between countries but this will not be fully developed or extensive. [14 – 17] For an accurate though undeveloped explanation with some attempt at analysis but only limited evaluation. The conclusion will be weak. [10 – 13] For an answer which shows some knowledge but does not indicate that the question has been fully grasped. The answer will have some correct facts but include irrelevancies. Errors of theory or omissions of analysis will be substantial. [1 – 9]  © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2005

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

social observations essays

social observations essays For my social observations paper I attended a high school football game and observed how students interacted with fellow classmates, namely students from other towns, teachers, parents and even the town "super-fan". I also observed how they interacted with classmates of different race and ethnicity and how they didn't interact with the elderly. I expected to find that the students would be mainly in groups of the same social and economic status. I also expected to find the students keeping their distance away from the parents in the stands or the parents keeping their distance away from them. When I first arrived it was apparent that the "popular" students still sat in the same section (top left corner) in the stands as they did when I was a student there. It was obvious that the students that were in this group felt comfortable around other "popular" students. The students in this group rarely strayed away unless it was to the snack bar and when they did it was with 4 or 5 others. On their way back from the snack bar the teachers would sometimes try to start a conversation with the students but the students kept it short and sweet, afraid of what fellow classmates thought. There was very little interaction outside the group for fear of embarrassment. Most of the conversation outside the group was to the town super-fan who is more often than not intoxicated. He attends all the football, hockey, and baseball games and is often on the rowdy side. The students found it amusing to ask him questions and give him hypothetical situations. This was one of the very few times they interacted with non-group goers. The students from other towns are automatically viewed as outcasts and aren't included in the conversation. When students from other towns are introduced to people in the group, the students are often nice but then criticized their personality or clothing behind their back. One of the more popular students had a ...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

The Battle of Hong Kong in World War II

The Battle of Hong Kong in World War II The Battle of Hong Kong was fought December 8 to 25, 1941, during World War II (1939-1945). One of the opening battles of the conflict in the Pacific, Japanese troops commenced their attack on the British colony the same morning as their attack on the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor. Though badly outnumbered, the British garrison mounted a tenacious defense but were soon forced from the mainland. Pursued by the Japanese, the defenders were ultimately overwhelmed. Overall, the garrison succeeded in holding out for over two weeks before finally surrendering. Hong Kong remained under Japanese control until the end of the war. Background As the Second Sino-Japanese War raged between China and Japan during the late 1930s, Great Britain was forced to examine its plans for the defense of Hong Kong. In studying the situation, it was quickly found that the colony would be difficult to hold in the face of a determined Japanese attack. Despite this conclusion, work continued on a new defensive line extending from Gin Drinkers Bay to Port Shelter. Begun in 1936, this set of fortifications was modeled on the French Maginot Line and took two years to complete. Centered on the Shin Mun Redoubt, the line was a system of strong points connected by paths. In 1940, with World War II consuming Europe, the government in London began reducing the size of the Hong Kong garrison to free troops for use elsewhere. Following his appointment as Commander-in-Chief of the British Far East Command, Air Chief Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham requested reinforcements for Hong Kong as he believed even a marginal increase in the garrison could significantly slow down the Japanese in the case of war. Though not believing that the colony could be held indefinitely, a protracted defense would buy time for the British elsewhere in the Pacific. Final Preparations In 1941, Prime Minister Winston Churchill agreed to dispatch reinforcements to the Far East. In doing so, he accepted an offer from Canada to send two battalions and a brigade headquarters to Hong Kong. Dubbed C-Force, the Canadians arrived in September 1941, though they lacked some of their heavy equipment. Joining Major General Christopher Maltbys garrison, the Canadians prepared for battle as relations with Japan began to falter. Having taken the area around Canton in 1938, Japanese forces were well positioned for an invasion. Preparations for the attack began that fall with troops moving into position. Battle of Hong Kong Conflict: World War IIDates: December 8-25, 1941Armies Commanders:BritishGovernor Sir Mark Aitchison YoungMajor General Christopher Maltby14,564 menJapaneseLieutenant General Takashi Sakai52,000 menCasualties:British: 2,113 killed or missing, 2,300 wounded, 10,000 capturedJapanese: 1,996 killed, around 6,000 wounded Fighting Begins Around 8:00 AM on December 8, Japanese forces under Lieutenant General Takashi Sakai began their attack on Hong Kong. Commencing less than eight hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese quickly gained air superiority over Hong Kong when they destroyed the garrisons few aircraft. Badly outnumbered, Maltby elected not to defend the Sham Chun River line at the colonys border and instead deployed three battalions to the Gin Drinkers Line. Lacking sufficient men to fully man the lines defenses, the defenders were driven back on December 10 when the Japanese overran the Shing Mun Redoubt. Retreat to Defeat The rapid breakthrough surprised Sakai as his planners anticipating needing a month to penetrate the British defenses. Falling back, Maltby began evacuating his troops from Kowloon to Hong Kong Island on December 11. Destroying harbor and military facilities as they departed, the final Commonwealth troops left the mainland on December 13. Japanese forces attack the Tsim Sha Tsui Station in Hong Kong. Public Domain For the defense of Hong Kong Island, Maltby re-organized his men into Eastern and Western Brigades. On December 13, Sakai demanded that the British surrender. This was promptly refused and two days later the Japanese began shelling the islands northern shore. Another surrender demand was rejected on December 17. The next day, Sakai began landing troops on the islands northeastern coast near Tai Koo. Pushing back the defenders, they were later guilty of killing prisoners of war at Sai Wan Battery and Salesian Mission. Driving west and south, the Japanese met heavy resistance over the next two days. On December 20 they succeeded in reaching the south coast of the island effectively splitting the defenders in two. While part of Maltbys command continued the fight on the western part of the island, the remainder was hemmed in on the Stanley Peninsula. On Christmas morning, Japanese forces captured the British field hospital at St. Stephens College where they tortured and killed several prisoners. Later that day with his lines collapsing and lacking critical resources, Maltby advised Governor Sir Mark Aitchison Young that the colony should be surrendered. Having held out for seventeen days, Aitchison approached the Japanese and formally surrendered at the Peninsula Hotel Hong Kong. Major General Christopher Maltby meets with the Japanese to surrender Hong Kong, December 25, 1941. Public Domain Aftermath Subsequently known as Black Christmas, the surrender of Hong Kong cost the British around 10,000 captured as well as 2,113 killed/missing and 2,300 wounded during the battle. Japanese casualties in the fighting numbered 1,996 killed and around 6,000 wounded. Taking possession of the colony, the Japanese would occupy Hong Kong for the remainder of the war. During this time, the Japanese occupiers terrorized the local population. In the wake of the victory at Hong Kong, Japanese forces embarked on a string of victories in Southeast Asia which culminated with the capture of Singapore on February 15, 1942.​

Friday, February 14, 2020

CIS Homework Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

CIS Homework - Case Study Example It is pertinent to mention here that the guidelines and best practices varies with respect to the medium or category of the technology; for example, the guidelines for information security of the information systems would be not similar to the best practices or guidelines of the computer network, mobile devices, online collaboration and social sharing, internet protection, electronic device security etc (IBM, n.d). One of the most common information security best practices that I have found in all the above mentioned websites is to develop strong password protection for logging in / logging out of any system. One of the main reasons for emphasizing the strong passwords is that despite the development and implementation of latest technologies to protect secured information, the information can easily have unauthorized access if the user has not developed a strong password to secure its personal information. Moreover, most of the information leakage is due to the same reason, as a common hacker can attack to the vulnerability of weak password and break into your